The scientific method is a process for obtaining and interpreting knowledge.
o Hypothesis: a conditional, working explanation that can be verified or
o Theory: an explanation that is supported by an overwhelming body of data
Of the incoming radiation from the sun, what percentage is immediately reflected back to space?
In the Northern Hemisphere which direction does the Coriolis force deflect an object?
>to the right
There are 3 major atmospheric circula
L04 Friday August 27
MSCI210 Fall 2015 Course Outline
Beginning of scientific oceanography
Capt James Cook
three voyages: 1768, 1772 and 1776
created charts of winds, currents temperature and marine life
Benjamin Franklin - 1769 first chart of Gulf Stream
L05 Monday Aug 31
MSCI210 Fall 2015 Course Outline
Earth Structure continued
If new crust forming, where does the old crust go?
the crust must be going somewhere because the Earth is not getting
old crust is getting subducted at the same rate that
Steps for evolution: if a mutation is beneficial, then these adaptations are
genetically passed on to offspring.
Natural selection: is the physical, biological environment that selects individual
with traits favorable to survival.
o If the traits a
Shore: between low tide level and highest elevation on land impacted by storm
o A few meters to 100s of meters wide
Coast: from inland edge of shore as far inland as ocean related features are found.
1 to 100s of km.
Coastline: boundary betw
Tides: is a shallow-water wave.
o Deformation or pulling of the ocean outwards due to gravitational
attraction of moon and sun.
o Centripetal force, gravity
Acts to keep the orbiting body tethered to the parent, pulling the
object inward toward the
Ch. 9 Waves
Waves: disturbance caused by movement of energy.
o Wave height is measured from trough to crest.
o Crest is the high point and trough is the low point.
o Wave length is from one crest to another.
o Period is the time required for wave crest at
Ch. 8 ocean circulation
Ocean circulation: surface currents: horizontal, wind driven, upper 400 meters of
the ocean (10%).
o Deep water masses: vertical, density driven, thermohaline circulation.
Surface current forces: solar heating, winds, Coriolis.
Ch. 7 Atmospheric circulation
The sun is the energy that drives the atmosphere, ocean, and climate.
o Solar radiation input to earth = earths output of re-radiated heat = heat
o Earth re-radiates long wave radiation
Greenhouse gases: due to the pr
Ch. 6 Water
Chemical structure of water: covalent bond.
o Water is a polar, the oxygen end is negatively charged, and the hydrogen
end is positively charged.
o The bonds are separated by an angle of 105o.
Key to water: water polarity is the key to waters
Density: measures the mass per unit volume of a substance. Expressed in cubic
o The earth is density stratified into crust, mantle, and core.
Isostasy: gravitational equilibrium between the earth's lithosphere and
Oceanography: started out slow with prehistoric humans using bones and copper
for fishing tackle around 5000 BC.
Oceanian people: used stick charts showing the wave patterns to help navigate
from island to island.
o Charts included swell direct
Chapter 2: History and Challenges of Ocean Studies
Guide to Reading and Learning
Many of you reading this chapter will have had little or no personal experience with the oceans except perhaps for a
visit or two to the coast. Also, many will have had littl