Biology 102 Test 2
Land Plants vs. Charophytes
Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis
Structure of flagellated sperm
Formation of a pharagmoplast complex assembly of microtubules and
Apomorphic characteristic of mammal is the single lower jaw bone. The name of this
bone is the dentary. Another characteristic are 3 middle ear ossicles. Most tertapods
have one ear osscile: the stapes. Mammals have 3: stapes, incus, and the mall
Final Exam Biology notes: ECOLOGY, CLIMATES, ETC
Most interactions between organisms are over resources: Competition, Predation
When organisms compete for the same resource: energy, matter, or space
Chapter 25- History of Life on Earth
1. Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible
a) Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules
b) Joining of these small molecules into macromolecules
c) Packaging of molecules into protobionts, droplet
Chapter 26- Phylogeny and tree of Life
1. Phylogenies show evolutionary relationship
Phylogeny- It is the evolutionary history of a species or group of species.
Evolutionary relationships can be depicted in a branching phylogenetic tree.
Systematics- a di
Exam 3 Review Part 1 (Ch. 32, 33, 34, 40)
1. List the steps of the sperm fertilizing the egg (start with gastrula formation).
a. 1) After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes rapid mitotic
divisions with no significant growth(a process known as
Exam 3 Worksheet Part 2 (Ch. 41,42, 43)
1. What are the four classes of essential nutrients?
a. Essential AA
b. Essential fatty acids
2. Why are they essential/what does it mean to be essential?
a. They are required by cells and mu
Unit 2 Botany
Indicate whether the following would be true of :
Bryophytes and related plants
_ These plants would be
_ The father of modern taxonomy.
_ The science of classification.
_ The two name naming system used in biology.
_ The first word in a scientific
Genetic Inheritance and Evolution
I. Asexual reproduction
a. w/o fusion of gametes
b. all genes pass to offspring
d. Budding grows replicate of itself on the body
e. Fragmentation offspring genetically identical to par
-devised by Carl Linnaues, 1753
Species- a real thing, all others are created by humans, they are categories.
A species is a population or populations of an organism, the
Charles Darwin, published origin of species in 1858. Earlier belief was that there was
unchanging life forms, developed in 7 days, and that the Earth was only a few thousand
Sedimentary rocks occur in stratum (strata.) Rainfall erodes
Evolution: generation to generation change in a populations frequency of alleles or gen otypes i.e. a change in it's genetic structure.
5 conditions for Hardy Weinburg Equilibrium:
1. No natural selection (big cause of evolution.)
2. No migration (If indi
The first eukaryotes are about 2.1 billion years old.
*10x larger than prokaryote cells.*
2 hypothesis as to how eukaryotes evolve:
>Autogenous hypothesis: the organelles of eukaryotes arose from infoldings of the
Chapter 27 continued. Bacteria and
Plasmids: small, optional chromosomes. From 20,000 base pairs in length to 100,000
base pairs in length. Optional means that bacterial cell can survive without plasmids.
They often have antibiotic resistance gene
Chapter 29 Continued
Alternation of generations life cycle: This is the life cycle of all plants.
Alternate between 2 generations: Multicellular Sporophyte Generation-all cells are
diploid. Produces spores, which are haploid. Diploid to haploid requires m
Exam 1 Material
Physiology general properties of organisms with common ancestors are the same
All organism share 20-22 amino acids (although millions exist)
Life = monophyletic (meaning life evolved once)
Theme #1 :
Science = search for knowledge,
Final Test Notes
a. A collection of populations of different species occupying a particular habitat
b. All organisms require net increase in energy and matter to reproduce
a. An interaction where 2
Ultimate goal of organisms is to gain enough energy to reproduce
Senescence = break down of body near death
Reproduction making offspring to replace adult population
Better way to quantify reproduction grandchildren
Need to produce of
_ A molecule that is produced by cells infected by viruses that
protects surrounding cells.
_ A group of blood proteins that help various activities taking
place within the immune system.
BIOLOGY 102 STUDY GUIDE
University of South Carolina
Dr. Tom Reeves
UNIT I: Introduction, Taxonomy, Origin of Life, Survey of
Monera, Protista, Fungi
UNIT II: Survey of Plants, Plant Structure, Plant Nutrition
and Transport, Plant Reproduction, Plant Horm
The Great Clade Race
January 25th, 2016
The findings of my groups' pathways tell us that all these cards were
from from the same family because they had some traits in common. For
example, they all have a theta symbol on them and thats
The Origins of Life
January 25th, 2016
Aliyah S. Dunn
According to Britannica, space exploration was described as the
investigation, by means of manned and unmanned spacecraft, of the reaches
of the universe beyond Earths atmosphere and the use of the inf