Biology 102 Test 2
Land Plants vs. Charophytes
Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis
Structure of flagellated sperm
Formation of a pharagmoplast complex assembly of microtubules and
Final Exam Biology notes: ECOLOGY, CLIMATES, ETC
Most interactions between organisms are over resources: Competition, Predation
When organisms compete for the same resource: energy, matter, or space
Chapter 25- History of Life on Earth
1. Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible
a) Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules
b) Joining of these small molecules into macromolecules
c) Packaging of molecules into protobionts, droplet
Chapter 26- Phylogeny and tree of Life
1. Phylogenies show evolutionary relationship
Phylogeny- It is the evolutionary history of a species or group of species.
Evolutionary relationships can be depicted in a branching phylogenetic tree.
Systematics- a di
Exam 3 Review Part 1 (Ch. 32, 33, 34, 40)
1. List the steps of the sperm fertilizing the egg (start with gastrula formation).
a. 1) After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes rapid mitotic
divisions with no significant growth(a process known as
Exam 3 Worksheet Part 2 (Ch. 41,42, 43)
1. What are the four classes of essential nutrients?
a. Essential AA
b. Essential fatty acids
2. Why are they essential/what does it mean to be essential?
a. They are required by cells and mu
Unit 2 Botany
Indicate whether the following would be true of :
Bryophytes and related plants
_ These plants would be
Genetic Inheritance and Evolution
I. Asexual reproduction
a. w/o fusion of gametes
b. all genes pass to offspring
d. Budding grows replicate of itself on the body
e. Fragmentation offspring genetically identical to par
Ultimate goal of organisms is to gain enough energy to reproduce
Senescence = break down of body near death
Reproduction making offspring to replace adult population
Better way to quantify reproduction grandchildren
Need to produce of
Final Test Notes
a. A collection of populations of different species occupying a particular habitat
b. All organisms require net increase in energy and matter to reproduce
a. An interaction where 2
Apomorphic characteristic of mammal is the single lower jaw bone. The name of this
bone is the dentary. Another characteristic are 3 middle ear ossicles. Most tertapods
have one ear osscile: the stapes. Mammals have 3: stapes, incus, and the mall
-devised by Carl Linnaues, 1753
Species- a real thing, all others are created by humans, they are categories.
A species is a population or populations of an organism, the
Charles Darwin, published origin of species in 1858. Earlier belief was that there was
unchanging life forms, developed in 7 days, and that the Earth was only a few thousand
Sedimentary rocks occur in stratum (strata.) Rainfall erodes
Evolution: generation to generation change in a populations frequency of alleles or gen otypes i.e. a change in it's genetic structure.
5 conditions for Hardy Weinburg Equilibrium:
1. No natural selection (big cause of evolution.)
2. No migration (If indi
The first eukaryotes are about 2.1 billion years old.
*10x larger than prokaryote cells.*
2 hypothesis as to how eukaryotes evolve:
>Autogenous hypothesis: the organelles of eukaryotes arose from infoldings of the
Chapter 27 continued. Bacteria and
Plasmids: small, optional chromosomes. From 20,000 base pairs in length to 100,000
base pairs in length. Optional means that bacterial cell can survive without plasmids.
They often have antibiotic resistance gene
Chapter 29 Continued
Alternation of generations life cycle: This is the life cycle of all plants.
Alternate between 2 generations: Multicellular Sporophyte Generation-all cells are
diploid. Produces spores, which are haploid. Diploid to haploid requires m
Exam 1 Material
Physiology general properties of organisms with common ancestors are the same
All organism share 20-22 amino acids (although millions exist)
Life = monophyletic (meaning life evolved once)
Theme #1 :
Science = search for knowledge,
Protosomes are broken down into 2 separate groups:
Ecdysozoa (ecdysist.) and Lopphotrochozoa.
There are 2 groups in the Ecdysozoa: Nematoda and Arthropoda.
Lophotrochozoa is named for 2 things: Lophophore means tentacles, and Trochophore
larva means swim
_ The father of modern taxonomy.
_ The science of classification.
_ The two name naming system used in biology.
_ The first word in a scientific
BIOLOGY 102 STUDY GUIDE
University of South Carolina
Dr. Tom Reeves
UNIT I: Introduction, Taxonomy, Origin of Life, Survey of
Monera, Protista, Fungi
UNIT II: Survey of Plants, Plant Structure, Plant Nutrition
and Transport, Plant Reproduction, Plant Horm
Chapter 41 Worksheet
Food is taken apart and taken up through the process of animal_
Which of the following statements are true?
a. Carnivores eat other animals
a. After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes rapid mitotic divisions with
no significant growth
b. After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes slow mitotic divisions with
Chapter 42 Worksheet
Which of the following is not a basic component of an open and closed
a. A circulatory fluid
b. A set of tubes
c. A complete cycle
d. A muscular tube
Most insects, other arthropods, and m
Chapter 40 Worksheet
_ is the study of the biological functions an organism performs
What is the correct definition of Anatomy?
a. is the study of the biological form of an organism
b. is the study
Chapter 32 and 33 Worksheet
Which of the following statements is true?
a. Cleavage is known as a process after a sperm fertilizes an egg, the
zygote undergoes rapid mitotic divisions with significant growth
b. Cleavage is known as a p