A) Anatomy: study of the structure of body parts and their relationships with one another
a. Gross (macroscopic) anatomy: study of large body structures visible to the naked
b. Regional anatomy: study of all structures of a specific region
Chapter 3 outline
Overview of the cellular basis of life
A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. When
you define cell properties you are in fact defining the properties of life.
The activity of an organism
The twitch: skeletal muscle
Twitch characteristics reflect the metabolic properties of myofibrils
Graded Muscle Response (i.e., Tension Production)
Stimulation frequency: very crude
Motor unit recruitment: precise
Motor unit: a motor ne
Check your understanding:
1. Which layer of the skin- dermis or epidermis- is better nourished?
a. The dermis is connective tissue, which is vascular, so its cells would be better nourished
than those of the epidermis, which is avascular epithel
Anatomy and Physiology
o Lowers the energy of activation
o Increases the rate of reaction
o w/o being consumed in the reaction
can exist as 2 parts
o apoenzymes- protein portion
o cofactor- assist the r
1. Which epidermal cell type is most numerous?
c. Dendritic cell
d. Tactile cell
2. Which cell functions as part of the immune system?
c. Dendritic cell
d. Tactile cell
3. The epidermis provides
The Integumentary System
4. Sweat glands
5. Sebaceous (oil) glands
Protection: chemical, physical and biological
Body temperature regulation
Metabolic function: chemical conversion
What does the integumentary system
Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands,
sebaceous (oil) glands
Protection: chemical, physical and
Body temp regulation
Metabolic function: chemical
What does a catalyst do?
Lowers the energy of activation
Increase the rate of reaction
w/o being consumed in the reaction
What is an enzyme?
A biological catalyst
Its an enzyme that can assist the reaction
It can be metal, organic/inorganic
Citric Acid Cycle
Occurs in mitochondrial matrix
Fueled by pyruvic acid and fatty acids
Also called Kreb cycle, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
Transitional phase converts each pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA I three steps
o Decarboxylation: removal of 1 C to p
1. The correct sequence of levels forming the structural hierarchy is
a. Organ, organ system, cellular, chemical, tissue, organismal
b. Chemical, cellular, tissue, organismal, organ, organ system
c. Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organis
Muscle of Head, Neck and Torso
HEAD and FACE
Epicranius (frontal belly)
Frontal belly: epicranial
belly: occipital and
Frontal belly: skin of
eyebrows and root of nose;
occipital belly: epicrania
Anatomy & Physiology II: Exam 1
-Sensory input- information gathered by sensory receptors about internal and external changes
-Integration- interpretation of sensory input
-Motor output- activation of effector organs
Anatomy Assignment 1
1. List all types of neuroglia and cite their function.
Neuroglia are much like neurons in that they both have processes that branch out
and include a central body, the difference is that they have a much darker colored nuclei
1. Polydipsia- excessive thirst
Polyuria- excessive urination
2. The water deprivation and hypertonic saline infusion did not result in concentrated
urine because a decreased amount of ADH is linked to diabetes mellitus. The k
Anatomy Assignment 2
1. Yes, he is able to feel pain in his right hand. The transection injury is below the
cervical spine so the arms and chest will not be affected. Yes, he is also able to feel pain
in his right foot. The nerve tract that conducts pain
1. Both the somatic and autonomic nervous systems involve motor fibers, but they differ in what
their effectors are, their pathways, and what their target organs respond to.
The effectors of the somatic nervous system are all skeleta
Chapter 6-Cardiorespiratory Endurance
-One of the four health-related components of Physical fitness
-Most important component of health related physical fitness
-Facilitated by aerobic physical activity
-Important for prevention of cardiovascular
March 25, 2017
1. Describe and then compare and contrast the action potentials of the primary
cardiac pacemaker and primary contractile cells of the heart
The heart has two different types of myocytes, Pacemaker cells and contr
A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing
the Effectiveness of Functional Knee Brace
and Neoprene Sleeve Use After Anterior
Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Trevor B. Birmingham,* PhD, Dianne M. Bryant, PhD, J. Robert Giffin, MD, FRCS(C),
Robert B. Litchfie
What is a nutrient?
A substance in food that is used by the body to promote growth, maintenance, and repair
What are macronutrients and give examples of a few?
Nutrients that make up a bulk of what we eat
Ex/. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, etc
EXSC 224 Exam 1 Study Guide
What are the three things the nervous system does?
Sensory Input, Integration and Motor Output
What are the two division of the nervous system?
The Central Nervous System, and the Peripheral Nervous system
What components make
EXSC 224-001 Summer
June 7th, 2016
Assignment # 3
1) Cletus is at rest. His heart rate is 68 bpm and is under parasympathetic control.
A) What is the neurotransmitter associated with the parasympathetic system and the
EXSC 224 Exam #2
1. What does the autonomic NS do?
a. It innervates the smooth/ cardiac muscles and glands, allows them to operate
subconsciously without need to devote extra brain power to operate them.
2. What are some of the differences between the som
EXSC 224 Exam #3
What are the two circuits in the cardiovascular system?
a. Pulmonary and Systemic
What are the characteristics of the pulmonary circuit?
a. Low pressured, carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs
What are the characteristics of the sy
May 30th, 2016
Assignment # 2
The most common Glucocorticoid secreted by Humans is cortisol. The most common
Mineralocorticoid secreted by Humans is Aldosterone. Both Cortisol and Aldosterone
Exsc 224-001 Summer 2016
May 16th, 2016
1. Define resting membrane potential and describe its electrochemical basis.
The cell membrane of a resting neuron is polarized, meaning it is more negatively
What is threshold as it refers to propagation of the action potential?
The increase in membrane potential caused by activation of enough ACH receptors to
cause the opening of the voltage gated sodium channels
What ion regulates muscle contraction?
Anatomy & Physiology Sec 001
Feburary 19, 2016
1) Explain why serious burns are life threating. Describe how to determine the extent of a burn
and differentiate between first, second and third degree burns.
EXSC 224 Lab Midterm Questions
Define and describe a Fissure
Deep Grove separating the major lobes of the brain
Define and describe the Gyri
Raised areas of grey matter between 2 sulci
Define and describe the Sulci
A shallow groove or furrow that separate