3/13/2010 THERMODYNAMICS CHAPTER 6
1
LECTURE NOTES IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER SIX
MIXTURES AND SOLUTIONS
1 INTRODUCTION.
Most of this chapter will deal with the properties of liquid mixtures and
so
1. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
thermodynamics: properties of macroscopic system,
no appeal to the properties of the microscopic constituents
general laws and relations
U
V
=T
T
P
T
2T V
C P CV =
2. Quantum Mechanics: Foundations
and Applications
Postulates of Quantum Theory
Postulate 1 All information that can be obtained
about the state of a mechanical system is contained
in a wave function
3. Quantum Mechanics: Vibrational
and Rotational Motion
Simple Harmonic Oscillator
Schrdinger equation for the harmonic oscillator
2 d2(x ) 1 2
H =
+ kx (x ) = E (x )
2
2m d x
2
nondimensionalize the
4. The Hydrogen Atom
spectrum of atomic hydrogen
electric discharge through hydrogen gas; molecules
are dissociated and excited atoms emit light
spectrum has discrete lines
[Figure: spectrum of atomic
5. Multielectron Atoms
He atom (or He-like atoms)
Z e2
2 2
Z e2
e2
2 2
1
2
+
H =
2m e
4 0 r 1 2m e
4 0r 2 4 0r 12
r i = distance of i-th electron from nucleus, r 12 = distance between the two electr
6. Diatomic Molecules
to specify the positions of the two nuclei and n electrons requires 6 + 3n coordinates
transform to center-of-mass coordinates
complication: for molecules the nuclei do not lie a
7. Molecular Spectroscopy
Born-Oppenheimer approximation: energy separated
into three types
rotational levels superimposed on vibrational levels
vibrational levels superimposed on electronic levels
E
8. Statistical Thermodynamics
build a bridge from the microscopic properties of individual particles to the macroscopic properties of bulk
samples
give a microscopic meaning to thermodynamic quantitie