pe+1 _ 0. Because this is an upward-going
parabola, we need only check where its roots are. Using the quadratic formula, we find that
they are located
2 and 1. Consequently in the range 0 _ pe _ 1
2 the error rate produced by coding is smaller.
6.17(215), 6.18(217), 6.19(217),
6.20(218), 6.21(219), 6.22(220),
6.23(222), 6.25(224), 6.26(225),
6.27(226), 6.28(228), 6.29(230),
6.30(231), 6.31(232), 6.32(233)
digital communication receiver, 6.19(217)
digital communication receivers, 6.17(215)
impact on the overall signal-to-noise ratio than the latter. Rather than applying error
correction to each
sample value, why not concentrate the error correction on the most important bits? Assume
that we sample
an 8 kHz signal with an 8-bit A/D converter
13.4.3 Earthing only one end of a cable 372
13.5 Screening and Earthing of Cables used in Electronic Circuits 373
13.5.1 Capacitance and inductance mechanisms 373
13.5.2 Screening against external interference 374
13.5.3 Earthing of screens 379
= 50; 063; 860.
Solution to Exercise 7.3 (p. 263)
Because of Newtons binomial theorem, the sum equals (1 + 1)n = 2n.
Index of Keywords and Terms
Keywords are listed by the section with that keyword (page numbers are in parentheses).
(c) For digital communication, we must consider the systems capacity. Is the capacity larger
repeater system than without it? If so, when; if not, why not?
Problem 6.33: Designing a Speech Communication System
We want to examine both ana
of load schedule can then be justified. However, the total power to be supplied will be very
when both methods are compared.
The total load can be considered in two forms, the total plant running load (TPRL) and the
total plant peak load (TPPL), h
interfacing with over many years.
The concept of writing this book came from the experience of providing lectures in the mid
1980s, whilst being employed by Mr Spencer Landes in his company in London. Mr Landes
also encouraged me to complete the task.
Appendix I Conversion Factors for the SI System of Units 597
I.1 Fundamental SI Units 597
I.2 Derived Non-electrical Units 597
I.3 Derived Electrical Units 598
I.4 Conversions 598
I.4.1 Length 598
I.4.2 Area 599
I.4.3 Volume 599
I.4.4 Mass and density 600
encountered with offshore production platforms, drilling rigs, onshore gas plants, pipelines,
natural gas plants, pipeline pumping stations, refineries and chemical plants.
The intention has been to achieve a balance between sufficient mathemati
As HDTV (high-definition television) was being developed, the FCC restricted this digital
system to use in
the same bandwidth (6 MHz) as its analog (AM) counterpart. HDTV video is sampled on a
1035 _ 1840
raster at 30 images per second for each of the thr
Solution to Exercise 6.39 (p. 239)
When you pick up the telephone, you initiate a dialog with your network interface by dialing
The network looks up where the destination corresponding to that number is located, and
routes the call
16.3.6 Active power sharing for generators 443
16.3.7 Isochronous control of system frequency 443
16.3.8 Reactive power sharing for generators 444
16.3.9 Isochronous control of busbar voltage 444
16.3.10 Condition monitoring of the gas turbines 444
of each generator or intake will be used to determine the highest voltage to use in the power
system. Table 1.1 shows typical voltages used throughout the world for generation,
transmission of power at oil industry plants, see also sub-se
Solution to Exercise 6.8 (p. 205)
The additive-noise channel is not linear because it does not have the zero-input-zero-output
though we might transmit nothing, the receivers input consists of noise).
Solution to Exercise 6.9 (p. 207)
(1 p)n +
p(1 p)n1 +
p2(1 p)n2 + _ _ _ +
pn = 1 :
Can you prove this?
7.3 Frequency Allocations3
To prevent radio stations from transmitting signals on top of each other, the United States
national governments in the 1
The probability of a single-bit error in a length-N block is Npe(1 pe)N1 and a triple-bit error
3(1 pe)N3. For the first to be greater than the second, we must have
(N 1) (N 2)
For N = 7, pe < 0:31.
As shown previously (6.11), voltages and currents in a wireline channel, which is modeled as
line having resistance, capacitance and inductance, decay exponentially with distance. The
governs free-space propagation becaus
combination of k things drawn from a pool of n is
and equals n!
Exercise 7.2 (Solution on p. 265.)
What are the chances of winning the lottery? Assume you pick 6 numbers from the numbers
Combinatorials occur in interesting places.
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Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire
This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestry
in which at leas
N = number of installed generators or feeders. N is usually between 4 and 6 for an
economical design of a generating plant and 2 or 3 for feeders.
Pl and Pg are usually the known variables, with Fi and Fo being the unknown variables.
Several feasible rati
10.5.8 Type of protection q 259
10.5.9 Type of protection s 259
10.5.10 Type of protection de 259
10.6 Types of Protection for Ingress of Water and Solid Particles 260
10.6.1 European practice 260
10.6.2 American practice 261
10.7 Certification of Hazardo
one year, and thereafter the demand may be much lower.
Table 1.7. Subsidiary load schedule for the low voltage emergency switchboard
Description of load No. of
5.6 Effect of the Supply Voltage on Ratings 122
5.7 Effect of the System Fault Level 123
5.8 Cable Volt-drop Considerations 123
5.9 Critical Times for Motors 125
5.10 Methods of Starting Induction Motors 125
5.10.1 Star-delta method 126
20.2 Synchronous Generator 480
20.2.1 Basic mathematical transformations 483
20.3 Some Notes on Induction Motors 490
20.3.1 Derived reactances 491
20.3.2 Application of three-phase short circuit 491
20.3.3 Derived reactances and time constants for an indu