A researchers foremost concern is treating subjects ethically and
A researcher is legally responsible for what happens to research
IRB(institutional review board)- review committee that evaluates
Phenomenology: is the description of an individuals immediate
experience; rather than looking at behaviors and events that are external
to us, we begin with personal experience as a source of data; Describes
but can not explain behavior.
Protecting the welfare of animal subjects.
Animal Welfare Act of 1966: regulates the care and treatment of animals
Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC): the review board
to evaluate animal research before it can be conducted.
In non-probability sampling subjects are not chosen at random
Four common examples of non-probability sampling
Quota sampling- researchers select samples through predetermined
quotas that are intended to reflect the makeup of the population.
Qualitative Research: research that relies on words rather than numbers
for the data being collected; it focuses on self-reports, personal
narratives, and expression of ideas, memories, feelings, and thoughts
Paradigm- the set of attitudes, values, belie
female interviewers more successful in person.
rapport- winning the interviewees trust
Interviewers must decide what time of interview to hold:
structured interview- the same questions are asked in precisely
the same way each time
selecting levels of measurement
survey responses can be measured using one of the four types of
the best type of scale to use will depend on two things: the nature
of the variable you are studying and how much measurement
precision you desire.
Scientific explanation in psychological science
identifying antecedent conditions
Antecedent conditions-are the circumstances that come before the
event or behavior that we want to explain
comparing treatment conditions
treatments-specific sets of antece
scatterplots- a graph of data from a correlational study, created by
plotting pairs of scores from each subject; the value of one variable is
plotted on the X(horizontal) axis and the other variable on the
positive, negative, or no relat
casual modeling- creating and testing models that may suggest
cause-and-effect relationships among behaviors
path analysis- an important correlation- based method in which
subjects are measured on several related behaviors;