CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Theory of Measurements and Errors (SG-3)
Name: _
Please complete the following problems in pencil on engineering paper.
Thought of the day: "Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set."
Proverbs 22:28
1)
The elev
Distance Measurement
Chapter 6
Methods For Measuring Distances
Pacing
A quick, easy method of determining distances.
Can achieve an accuracy of 1/50 to 1/100.
Odometer
Measuring Wheel that counts the number of
revolutions which is converted to a distance.
Leveling Computations
Chapter 5
Adjustments of Level Circuits
Level Circuits can be adjusted based on the lengths
of lines leveled or the number of setups between
benchmarks.
1
Adjustments of Level Circuits
BM
Distance (mi)
Elevation
A
Elevation
100.00
1.
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Introduction to Surveying (SG-1)
Name: _
Define surveying using your own words:
Surveying can be thought of as a 5-step process: The five steps are:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Decision-Making:
Field Work:
Computations:
Mapping:
Stakeout:
Sel
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Type (check one):
Required: X
Elective:
2007-2008 Catalog Data:
CE 115 Field Measurements. 3 credits. Theory of measurements and errors.
Measurement of line, direction and angles. Principles of leveling, traversing and
topographi
Angles, Azimuths
and Bearings
Chapter 7
1
Subdivision Drawing
Drawing shows
bearings of the
Centerline of each
roadway and the
tangent distance
between points.
Each lot is defined
using bearings and
line lengths. This is
an example of a
metes and bounds
s
Horizontal Curves
Chapter 24
Types of Circular Curves
Simple Curve
Reverse Curves
Compound Curves Broken-Back Curves
Broken-
Broken-Back Curves should be avoided if
Brokenpossible. It is better to replace the Curves
with a larger radius circular curve.
A
Theory of Errors in
Observations
Chapter 3
Errors in Measurement
No Measurement is Exact
Every Measurement Contains Errors
The True Value of a Measurement is
Never Known
The Exact Error Present is Always
Unknown
1
Mistakes or Blunders
Caused by:
Careless
Theory of Errors in
Observations
Chapter 3
(continued)
50, 90 and 95 Percent Errors
The 50% error or probable error establishes the limits within an
observation has the same chance of falling within the limits or
outside of them.
The 90 and 95% errors are
Leveling
Chapter 4
Why do we perform leveling surveys?
To determine the topography of sites for design
projects
Set grades and elevations for construction
projects
Compute volumes of earthwork
1
Old Datum: Mean Sea Level
Mean Sea Level (MSL)
Average heigh
/*
Structure variables can be passed by values and
can also be passed by reference
The return type can also be a structure
*/
#include <iostream>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <ctime>
using namespace std;
const int MAX = 80;
struct RationalNo
cfw_
int numer
/ Using bitwise operators to check if a
/ positive integer is odd or even
#include <iostream>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <ctime>
using namespace std;
/ A function to check if a an integer is
/ odd or even, using bitwise operators
bool isEven (int);
int m
Introduction to Measurements
Why do we need
measurements?
Introduction to Measurements
The tombs of Egyptian pharaohs the pyramids
were constructed by builders using more than simple
rulers: the pyramids are regular, symmetric and
aligned with the Earth'
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Horizontal Curves (SG-20)
Name: _
Refer to the accompanying plan view of a roadway. Given the information on the
drawing, compute the degree of curvature in DMS, tangent distance, length of horizontal
curve, long chord distance,
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Adjustment of Leveling Circuits and Reciprocal Leveling (SG-9)
Name: _
1) A differential leveling circuit began and closed on BM 46-1453-3.65 bridge. The BS
and FS distances were kept approximately equal. The following data was r
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Magnetic Declination (SG-13)
Name: _
_ is defined as the horizontal angle from
the geodetic meridian to the magnetic meridian. Since the magnetic pole positions of the
earth are constantly changing, magnetic declinations exist an
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Measurement Theory (SG-2)
Name: _
There are five kinds of surveying measurements. These include:
_, _, _,
_, and _. Combinations of these types of
measurements are used to determine the relative positions between any points in sp
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Vertical Curves (SG-10)
Name: _
1) A grade g1 = 5% intersects grade g2 = -4% at STA 92+00. The elevation at STA
92+00 is 100.00 feet. An equal-tangent parabolic curve 800 feet long will be used to
connect the two tangents. Comput
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Stadia Computations (SG-18)
Name: _
Calculate the horizontal distance AB and the elevation of B for the following stadia
readings taken at A. The elevation of point A is 455.6 feet. The HI at A is 5.4 feet.
Assume K = 100 feet.
a
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
More Vertical Curves (SG-11)
Name: _
1) A back tangent grade g1 = 5% intersects a forward tangent grade g2 = -5% at STA
20+00. The elevation at STA 20+00 is 100.00 feet. An unequal-tangent parabolic
curve (L1 = 600 feet and L2 =
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Linear Measurements (SG-5)
Name: _
In plane surveying the distance between two points is always the _
distance. Linear measurements may be obtained by the following methods: _,
_, _, _, _,
_, _, _, GPS and aerial photography. GPS
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Leveling and Trigonometric Leveling (SG-8)
Name: _
1) The slope distance and zenith angle measured from point A to point B were
13,608.21 ft and 96 17 18, respectively. The instrument and rod target heights
were equal. If the ele
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Error in a Product and Weighted Measurements (SG-4)
Name: _
Please complete the following problems in pencil on engineering paper.
1) A 3 acre square parcel of land is to be surveyed to a required accuracy of +/- 50.00 sf.
Comput
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Fall 2006
Tentative Lab Assignments
Lab I
Party 1
Hilliard
Syzdek
Boyer
Linear measurement by pacing and taping
Party 2
PC,N
OBryant
PC,N
C
Sandifer
C
C
Randall
C
Lab II
Party 1
Hilliard
Syzdek
Boyer
Differential leveling I
Party
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Angles, Bearings, and Azimuths (SG-12)
Name: _
Angles are classified as _ or _ depending on the plane in
which they are measured. _ angles are needed to determine the interior
angles of a traverse. _ angles are used in trigonomet
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Leveling (SG-7)
Name: _
Leveling is the process by which elevation of points or the vertical distances between
points are determined. It is important for _, _ and
architectural design and _. Leveling data is used to 1) _
highways
CE 115 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Closed Traverse
Departures, Latitudes, Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision (SG-14)
Name: _
Compute the bearings and departure/latitudes for each side of the accompanying traverse.
The bearing of line AB = 56 18 36. Compute t