Chapter 8 Terms: Primate Life Histories & Evolution of Intelligence
Extracted Foods Food that is embedded in a matrix, encased in a hard shell, or otherwise
difficult to extract. Extracted foods require complicated, carefully coordinated t
-Georges Cuvier introduced the idea of extinction and proposed a variation of a
doctrine known as catastrophism.
Catastrophism: The view that the earths geological landscape is the result of violent
cataclysmic events. Cuvier promoted this view, especiall
Evidence of Natural Selection
Natural Selection has been documented in the wild (under field conditions), as well
as in laboratory experiments.
-Under field conditions, selection pressures are shown to vary, and they may
vary quickly. Phenotypes may alter
Lecture 5: 9/17/15 (Chapter 3)
The Unity of Life; Chromosomes & DNA
DNA is the molecule responsible for inheritance; present in all life on earth
-The genomes of several thousand species sequenced; all species have great genetic
How Similar Are
- Strepsirhines and Haplorhines
- Strepsirhines Lemurs & Lorises longer snouts, no enclosure behind the eye orbit,
incompletely fused lower jaw, tapetum lucidum (allows them to see well at night).
- Lemurs more
Food: Key Adaptations Result
- Distribution may vary in space and time
- Folivory Leaves (Low) High in fiber, high in protein, low in calories
- eg. Bamboo lemurs (Malagasy prosimian)
- adapted to secondary compound (cyanid
- Incorporating bipedality
- Evolution of bipedality
- savanna hypothesis because of expanding savannas, human ancestors developed
bipedality to travel more efficiently.
- early human ancestors initially evolved bipedali
- relative use principles of superposition and faunal succession
- use characteristics of the layers themselves
- compare fossils at site A to other fossils at site B
- numerical (a precise form of relative tim
- Jean Baptiste Lamarck
- inheritance of acquired characteristics.
- Lamarckian evolution an elephant with a short trunk stretches until its trunk gets longer.
These traits are then passed down. Lamarckian explanation incorrect.
- An O
- Earliest tool maker
- earliest stone tools are 2.5 Ma from Ethiopia
- A. garhi in Ethiopia at 2.5 Ma
- Pre-date early Homo fossils by ~200 ka
- Gona, Ethiopia
- Earliest Homo fossils found at 2.4 Ma.
- What other group of hominins appears
- Begins with DNA replication somatic cells; 46-92, Germline 46 chromosomes 92
- Each chromosome is exactly replicated so that the two copies have exactly the same alleles.
- Cell division of somatic cells 1-2 hours
- 1 parent cell,
- allopatric vs sympatric speciation
- allopatric populations separate = speciation
- sympatric speciation within a current range of species
- adaptive radiation rapid expansion and diversification of populations into new ecological niches.
- Population a community of individuals where mates are usually found.
- Gene pool the sum of all alleles for a trait and their frequency within a population.
- follow the allele frequency from one generation to the next within a population.
Intro to Human evolution
Diet Transitions in Human History
Human and hominin diets have been changing for millions years. The composition of early
hominin is not constant, so they sought new foods and changed their diet in order to meet their
other groups by their ability to mate with one another and produce fertile offspring
Reproductively isolated: Pertaining to groups of organisms that, mainly because of
genetic differences, are prevented from mating and producing offspring with
Lecture 3: 9/10/15 (Chapter 2)
-While Charles Darwin was developing his theory of natural selection, Alfred Russel
Wallace reached the same conclusion.
-Throughout the Middle Ages, one common thought was that all aspects of nature
Aristotles Scale of Nature
God, Angels, Humans, Animals, Plans Fire, Minerals, Rocks
It explained the natural superiority of humans (at the top of the chain), and
conferred political authority.
In the mid-18th century (mid 1700s), Carolus Lin
Chapter 9: From Tree Shrew to Ape
Pangea- massive supercontinent that combined all of Earths dry land 120 mya
Laurasia- more northerly of 2 supercontinents 150-120 mya; North America, Greenland, Europe
and parts of Asia
Chapter 6 Terms: Primate Mating Systems
Bachelor Males A male that has not been able to establish residence in a bisexual group.
Bachelor males may live alone or reside in all-male groups
Dominance The ability of one individual to intimida
Chapter 7 Terms: The Evolution of Cooperation
Alliances An interaction in which 2 or more animals jointly initiate aggression against, or
respond to aggression from, one or more animals. (coalition)
Altruistic Behaviors Behavior that reduc
Chapter 3: Modern Synthesis
Camera-type eyes- eye in which light passes through a transparent opening and is then focused
by a lens on photosensitive tissue; found in vertebrates, mollusks and some arthropods
Canalized- describing traits t
Chapter 5 Terms: Primate Ecology & Behavior
Alkaloids - Secondary compounds produced and kept in plant tissues to make the plant distasteful
or even poisonous to herbivores
Basal Metabolic Rate - The rate of energy use required to maintain
Chapter 4: Speciation and Phylogeny
Adaptive radiation- process in which a single lineage diversifies into a number of species, each
characterized by distinctive adaptations. Ex: diversification of mammals at the beginning of thee
Chapter 1 Terms: Adaptation by Natural Selection
Adaptations- a feature of an organism created by the process of natural selection
Blending Inheritance- model of inheritance, widely accepted during the 19th century, in which
Chapter 2 Terms: Genetics
Activator- a protein that increases transcription of a regulated gene
Adenine- one of the four bases of the DNA molecule; complementary to thymine
Alleles- one of two or more alternative forms of a gene
Intro to Human Evolution
9 February 2015
Introduction to Human Evolution
1. Composition of DNA
a. Needed: a self-replicating molecule or conditions in which DNA can replicate
b. DNA replication:
b.i. Thymine Adenin
Lecture 1: 9/1/15 (Introduction)
What is Anthropology?
The study of humans.
In North America, split into four sub disciplines
-Social or cultural: studies produced many ethnographies that covered a
range of topics such as religion, ritual, myth, the use o
Parts of the skull: Frontal, parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Zygomatic, Maxilla, Mandible
Intermembral Index: Humans have an intermemral index between 68-70
Arm length/Leg length*100
100: limbs of equal length (terrestrial quadruped)