Biological Membranes Chapter 5
Plasma Membrane 1. Physically separates interior of cell from external environment 2. Receives information about changes in environment 3. Regulates passage of materials in and out of cell 4. Communicates with other cells 5.
Mendelian Genetics I) Modern View a. Gene locus i. Originally a position on a chromosome where a gene can exist ii. Todaya locus 1. A DNA segment that governs some characteristics (ex. Color of pods) 2. Each locus may have one or more specific alternative
LECTURE 12: The Basic Principles of Genetics
Mendel and the scientific approach - the two laws of inheritance
The Laws Probability govern Mendelian inheritance
Concept 14.1 Mendel and the Scientific Approach
Mendel discovered basic pri
Chapter 19: Viruses
A Borrowed Life:
Virus: Infectious particle consisting of a little more than genes packaged in a protein coat
Cannot reproduce or carry out metabolism outside of a host cell therefore, cannot be
a living form
Studies of viruses help
Most Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells
Mitotic phases alternate with interphase in the cell cycle
Cell theory: Cells are basic living units of organization and function in all organisms
All Cells co
8.1 An organisms metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics
8.2 The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously
8.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling
25.1 Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible.
25.3 Key events in lifes history include the origins of single-celled and multicellular organisms
and the colonization of land.
Overview: Lost Worlds
Past organisms were very diff
DNA is the genetic material
Many proteins work together in DNA replication and repair
A chromosome consists of a DNA molecule packed together with proteins.
Heterochromatin and Euchromatin will be reviewed during Gene Re
LECTURE 5: Organization of the Cell
6.1 Various tools in biochemistry can be used to study cells
6.2 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic have different compartmentalization
6.3 Eukaryotic cells genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by
Lecture 13: Chromosomes
Morgan showed that Mendelian inheritance has a physical basis in the behavior of
Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance
Linked genes tend to be inherited together because they ar
Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes
Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual cycles: karyotype demonstrates homologous
Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploi
Lecture 18: Human Genetics
Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance
Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders
Some inheritance patterns are exceptions to standard Mendelian inherit
Plant Transport Systems
Concept 36.1: Adaptations for acquiring resources were key steps in the evolution of
Xylem: transports water and minerals from roots to shoots
Phloem: Transports products of photosynthesis from where they
Concept 9.1 Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels.
9.2 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate
9.3 After pyruvate is oxidized, the citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of
Neuronal Plasticity - what is it, and why is it important?
The capacity for the nervous system to be remodeled.
Activity of synapses reinforce synapse connection, conversely, when the activity of
synapse fail to connect with others, the con
September 10, 2009 Chapter 10 Chromosomes and the Cell Cycle
I) General Background a. What is the significance of the chromosomes in term of i nformation? i. Major carriers of genetic information 1. 19th Centu ry Mendel genetic inheritance 2. 1880 Walter
September 3, 2009 Chapter 4 Organization of the Cell I) Cell Theory a. Smallest unit to carry out activities autonomously i. Maintenance, growth, division ii. Information contained in DNA codes (nucleus) b. All cells come from other cells c. Common Ancest
Chapter Two The Chemical Level of Organization Part Two
After discussing this section you will be able to: 1. Define organic compound and name three elements often found in organic compounds. 2. Explain why carbon forms so many different
A toms and Molecules: The Chemical Basis of Life Chapter 2 Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reaction Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nit rogen are the most abundant elements in living t hings (about 96%
Organization of the Cell Chapter 4 Cell Theory
(1) Smallest unit to carry out all activities associated with life; maintenance, growth and division: (1) Contained in DNA codes (2) All cells come from other cells: (1) Single cell (prokaryotes, protists, fu
Chromosomes, M i tosis and Meiosis Chapter 10 What is the significance of chromosomes in terms of information? Major carriers of genetic information 19thC Mendel - genetic factors 1880 Walter Fleming - seen during cell division 1903 Sutton and Boveri -car
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Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation
Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of RNA: a closer look
Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription
Translation is the RNA-direct synthesis of a
Concept 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food.
10.2 The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH.
10.3 The Calvin cycle uses the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce CO
7.1 Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins.
7.2 Membrane structure results in selective permeability.
7.3 The diffusion of solutes across a synthetic membrane.
7.4 Active transport; involves carrier proteins and nee
4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms
4.3 A few chemical groups are key to molecular function
5.1 Macromolecules are mostly polymers, built from monomers
5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building m