Old Kingdom- 3000-2200 BCE. The pyramid age, during which most of the characteristic
institutions and concepts pertaining to Egyptian civilization were begun and perfected.
Osiris- Egyptian god of the afterlife, dead, and underworld.
City of Essen: Industrialization and The Rise of the German Colossus
Kiche, Kinder, Kuche= Church, Raise, Kitchen for women
Womens movement in Europe
Interesting fact: German women cant refuse to have sex with their husband when he wants to
Notion of survival of the fittest.
`Social evolutionist assumptions were critical to rise of Eugenics and
- The notion that backward races as well as the sick and mentally deficit deserved
- They became critical rationales for ideologie
The Problem of Sources
John Wansbrough (d. 2002)
20th c. American scholar
Taught at University of Londons School of Oriental and African
Quranic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation
The Sectarian Mil
The Pre-Islamic Near East
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
built by Justinian between 532-537
Solidus gold coin
introduced by Constantine in 309/310
Council of Chalcedon - 451
Established the diophysite view of Jesus
Decreed the monophysite v
Message from governor of Khurasan,
Nasr b. Sayyar, to last Umayyad Caliph Marwan (750):
I see in the ashes the glimmer of burning coal,
And I fear its flaring into flames.
Fire needs only two twigs to kindle
And war is preceded but by the exc
1) WHO do you appoint?
2) WHO do you tax? How much?
3) WHO do you reward? How much?
4) How do you maintain control of conquered territories?
5) Where do you focus your resources?
The Rightly-Guided Caliphs
ABU BAKR (r. 632
The Problem of Succession
The Constitution of Medina
Original document lost
Ibn Ishaqs Sira and Sayyid al-Nas and Abu Ubayd's Kitab al-Amwal
Agreements between Muhajirun and people of Medina
Believers collectively referred to as umma
Membership in umma tr
It was during the last year of the Prophets life that, according to Shiis, he
confirmed `Alis position as his successor. The occasion was the Farewell Pilgrimage
when the Prophet performed the pilgrimage to Mecca fo
Western Civ H- Period 11
Primary Egyptian Deities
Primary God of Thebes;
He is the God of Air;
he then fused with Ra
He was considered the
father and king of all of the
other gods i
French Tech- machine gun, ironclad battleships
Prussian- Krups artillery
Russian- trains to French border= faster mobilization of troops than the French.
Prussians uniformity among units+ grey uniforms+ fast mobilization be