Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
NMR is the most powerful analytical tool currently available to an organic
NMR allows characterization of a very small amount of sample (10mg), and
does not destroy the sample (non-destructive techniq
Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry
It is fundamental for an organic chemist to be able to identify, or
characterize, the new compound that he/she has just made.
Sometimes this can be achieved by a chemical means, such as determining
Reactions of Alcohols
Alcohols are versatile organic compounds since they undergo a wide variety
of transformations the majority of which are either oxidation or reduction
Oxidation is a loss of electrons
Reduction is a gain of electrons.
Synthesis and Structure of Alcohols
Alcohols can be considered organic analogues of water.
Alcohols are usually classified as primary, secondary and tertiary.
Alcohols with the hydrox
Alkynes or acetylenes are compounds that contain a carboncarbon triple
CH3CH2 C C H
H3C C C CH3
The triple bond results in a molecular formula of CnH2n-2
0 elements of unsaturation
Reactions of Alkenes
Since bonds are stronger than bonds, double bonds tend to react to
convert the double bond into bonds
This is an addition reaction.
(Other types of reaction have been substitution and elimination).
Addition reactions are typi
Structure and Synthesis of Alkenes
Alkenes (olefins) are hydrocarbons which have carboncarbon double
A double bond is a bond and a bond.
Double bond B.D.E.
= 146 kcal/mol
= 83 kcal/mol
Therefore B.D.E. must = 63 kcal/mol.
Alkyl halides are a class of compounds where a halogen atom or atoms are
bound to an sp3 orbital of an alkyl group.
CHCl3 (Chloroform: organic solvent)
CF2Cl2 (Freon-12: refrigerant CFC)
CF3CHClBr (Halothane: anesthetic)
Halogen atoms are mo
This is study of the 3 dimensional arrangement in space of molecules.
In organic chemistry, subtle differences in spatial arrangements can give rise
to prominent effects.
E.g. the isomers of butenoic acid:
The Study of Chemical Reactions Mechanism: The complete, step by step description of exactly which bonds are broken, formed, and in which order. Thermodynamics: The study of the energy changes that accompany chemical and physical transformations. It allow
Alkanes Alkanes are the simplest organic molecules, they only contain C and hydrogen, and only contain single bonds. Compounds that have the maximum number of bonded hydrogens, are said to be saturated. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. General Formula:
Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Electrons exhibit wave-particle duality. There are 2 types of wave: travelling (ripples on a pond) standing waves (guitar string).
An electron in an atomic orbital can be described like a bound, stationary vib
Organic Chemistry I
Dr Alex Roche
Organic chemistry is the chemistry of Carbon and its compounds.
Organic molecules constitute the essence of life (fats, sugars, proteins,
DNA), and also permeate our everyday lives (cotton, polyester, toothpaste,