Only about 1% of water on Earth is groundwater why so valuable?
Abundant 70 x more fresh water below ground than above
Constant available even during dry periods
Widespread flows from humid to dry regions underground
CHAPTER 7 - SOILS
What is Soil?
- Unconsolidated, forms on land surface
- Minerals, organics, gases, and liquids
- Original sedimentary layers gone, new horizons form in-place
- NO PLANTS NECESSARY
Development of Horizons
Snow accumulation is function of annual solar radiation, which is a function of latitude.
Poles receive less solar energy due to angle of Suns rays with Earth.
Glaciers: Where are they?
All Others - <1%
Deep Time: How Old is Old?
In 1600s, they believed Earth was created on October 23, 4004 BC. Which means Earth is only
6000 years old.
Theories how Earth Surface was Formed
Catastrophism [an idea how Earth surface was formed]
Led by GeorgesCurvi
Weather and Climate Notes
- Tilt of Earths Axis
Short Term temperature / precipitation
o Hot Air
Low Pressure Rises
Condenses as it rises
o Cold air
High Pressure Sinks
Planet Earth Study Guide
Chapter 9: Volcanoes
What is viscosity?
Viscosity Resistance of lava to flow
What controls viscosity?
Amount of silica [less silica means less viscous since less molecules will tangle each
other: less viscous m
Chapter 9: Volcanic Eruptions
Volcano: an erupting vent through which molten rock reaches the Earths surface, or a
mountain built from the products of eruption
Lava: molten rock that has extruded out of the Earths surface
Lava flows: moving masses of molt
Chapter 8: Metamorphism
Metamorphic Rock: a rock that forms from a preexisting rock
-undergoes mineralogical and textural changes in response to modification of its
physical or chemical environment
Metamorphism: the process by which one kind of rock trans
Why did the Mediterranean dry up?
-lies in a hoty dry region, leads to evaporation
-colliding plates formed a natural dam, preventing water flow
Sediment: an accumulation of loose mineral grains, such as boulders, pebbles, sand, or
mud that are
Chapter 6: Magma & Igneous Rocks
Volcano: a vent at which melt from inside the Earth spews onto the planets surface
Igneous Rock: made by the freezing of a melt
Magma: melt that exists below the Earths surface
Intrusive Igneous Rock: rock made by the free
-Father of Geology
-Involved in the Scottish enlightenment
-wrote his own principles of geology
-influenced by Liell
-Natural Selection w/ modifications
-origin of species (1854)