DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING
14:650:312 FLUID MECHANICS
1. Course Description
Fluid Mechanics is the study of fluids either in motion (fluid dynamics) or at rest (fluid statics)
and the subsequent effec
H.M. NPR interview
o Hippocampus removed due to epilepsy
Result: Unable to form new memories* (Exceptions)
But solved his epilepsy
o Retrograde vs. Anterograde (HM) amnesia
Dont remember everything from the accident to a va
Where is the mind?
o Aristotle (~350 BCE)
The mind is in the heart.
Prior to anatomical analysis
o Galen (about 130 AD)
The mind is in the brain
Most mental functions take place in the cortex
Dualism: The idea that MIND and B
Thought has patterns
o Standard procedures that work because of their form, not their content
o This means that thought can be standardized or converted into a mechanical
Mechanical meaning following the laws of physics
Highlights of AI
o Behaviorism emphasizes actual behavior and not the mind
The Turing article:
o Establishing what it means to think
o He claims that computers will eventually pass this test.
People answer the questi
The brain: 10^11 neurons
o Frontal lobe
o Parietal lobe
o Occipital lobe
o Temporal lobe
Corpus callosum connects hemispheres
o Occipital lobe vision
o Temporal lobe audition/etc
o Pareital lobe attention/etc
o Primary Visual Cortex responsible for vision
But brain distinguishes b/w objects/people by examining edges of images and
their relevant orientations.
o Vision: Brain is trying to figure out the outside world with only visual
o Most mental processes are unconscious
o Limit to what can be consciously attended
Miller 1956: 7+ or 2 items
o Learning and Automaticity
As tasks become more automatic, control is less conscious
Like driving a car.
o Neither feature by itself can lead you to identify the target.
You need BOTH red AND slanted.
o Target: feature conjunction
o Linear effect of # distractors
Left location o o R
o Includes material till Thursday
o All MC
Wrong answer = as if youve never taken the course
Distractor Task (Word demonstration in class.)
o Random questions at the end of the list
o By introducing distractor task,
Assignment is due on Monday before class
o 500 word essay
Humes Problem the puzzle of induction
o Will the sun rise tomorrow?
How do you know for sure?
o Hume: The belief that the sun will rise tomorrow is not logically certain; it is
o In classical models, complex concepts are combinations of simple concepts
A red bird is an object that has and fits the definition of bird AND the
definition of red.
o You can combine concepts if they are definitions,
o Hume: Inductive beliefs are never absolutely certain
Thinking things that may not be true
How do you figure out what is likely to happen?
o That is induction
o Thomas Bayes (1763): But we can quantify the degree o
Cones come in 3 flavors
o Short/medium/long wavelengths
o What is the relative response of the 3 cone types?
Theres really only 3 types of cones (color)
Blue cone/green cone/red cone
o So each cone contributes a relat
A cube (dice) [distal stimulus] for example Gets projected onto eye to make an
image in our head of the cube [proximal stimulus] ~ The point is that. the proximal
stimulus is ambiguous, it doesnt tell you that it is a cube itself. You kno
Sensation and Perception
The study of S & P is the origin of study of Psychology
- Where does knowledge come from?
Nativists: We inherit or are born with knowledge
Empiricists: We acquire knowledge through interactions
- requires perception
Health Family Tree Project Paper Style Guide
1) Papers should be typed & double spaced, and conform to the standard rules of grammar and neatness
(including leaving one inch margins on all four sides). They should also be in
Health Family Tree Project
When you visit a physician for the first time you are often bombarded with many forms and questions.
Amidst the pile you are always asked for a personal health history as well as a family health history.
Unique in that there are receptors all over the body, not localized
in one place like the eye or the ear
At least 15 different types of receptors, each transducing
different types of sensation, including:
- Touch, pain, temperature, textur
A change in the physiology, anatomy, and/or biochemistry of neurons,
typically resulting in a change in neuronal communication.
Most form of neural plasticity are dependent on experience.
Thus this is the nervous systems method of writin
Neural Plasticity Continued
Greenough et al., 1979
- Can subtle manipulations, like learning something new each day,
result in morphological plasticity in adult animals?
- Trained animals in the Hebb-Williams maze for 26 days - new
problem every day
Neural Plasticity Contd - Neurogenesis
- Neurogenesis: The formation of new neurons
- In developing nervous system, new neurons born from neural stem cells
and migrate along radial glia to their appropriate location
- Is there neurogenesis into adulthood?
- Primary auditory and auditory association cortices are located in
-Primary auditory cortex is organized in a columnar fashion (collumnar
- columns of neurons respond to specific frequency of tones
- these colu
Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Darwin (1872)
Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Darwin (1872)
If facial expression of emotions is inherited (genetically determined), then.
1. Different cultures with different languages and no c
Major Subdivisions of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System (CNS): Composed of neurons
whose entire morphology is enclosed within the
skull and spinal column (i.e. the brain and spinal
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Composed of
neurons all or
Central Nervous System
- Composed of neurons whose entire morphology is found within:
Peripheral Nervous System
- Composed of neurons whose morphology is either entirely or
partially located outside the Brain and Spinal Cord.
- Are found all over membrane, but typically at or near
the terminal bouton
- Are activated by the neurotransmitter released by that
- Thus cell is stimulating itself
- Are metabotropic receptors, but do not change
o Sometimes our reasoning about models is invalid:
o If you ask people about simple intuitions, they will give you wrong answers.
Do heavier objects fall faster?
Fall @ same speed
What direction to objects contin