Changes in water temperature and salinity alter water density
Increases in water density cause water to sink until it reaches water of comparable
density (stable stratification)
All water in deep oceans gets there by cooling and i
The Earth's Hydrosphere
All water at or near the earth's surface is termed the hydrosphere
It includes atmospheric water vapor, ground water, lakes, rivers, polar icecaps, and the
Sources of Heat to the Ocean
As with the atmosphere, the major source of heat for the oceans is solar insolation
Most solar insolation arrives at the ocean surface (uppermost 100 m) in the Tropics
Other regionally important heat sources are volcanic erupt
Major Marine Sediment Types
Lithogenous (terrigenous) - detrital sediment
Biogenous - remains of dead organisms
Hydrogenous - precipitation of dissolved minerals in water
Cosmogenous - dust and meteorite fragments from Outer Space
Sediment Transport to Co
Key Questions for Geological Oceanography
What is the structure (size, shape) of each of the major ocean basins?
How did these basins form?
Do (& did) these ocean basins changes their structure?
Measuring the Size and Shape of the Earth's Ocean Basins
Geocentric Model of the Universe - the Earth is central. This model was developed
by the ancient Greeks and accepted until the time of Copernicus and Galileo (~15801620).
The Heliocentric Model is the current Model of the Solar System.
Solar System Charac
Evolution of Views about the Origin of the Ocean Basins
Before the 19th Century AD, the most common view was that all Earth features
formed during the origin of planet and are mostly unchanged since then.
But, even the Ancient Greeks were aware of the fos
Energy Transfer Between the Atmosphere and Oceans
The Atmosphere and oceans transfer mass and energy between then at all times and
Heat is one important form of energy transfer
Dissolved gasses is one important form of mass transfer
Driving Forces of Surface Ocean Circulation
Prevailing winds make waves and wind drift currents
Coriolis Force causes currents to deflect clockwise or counter-clockwise and develop
Continental margins deflect and guide currents
Characteristics of the Earth's Atmosphere
The atmosphere is composed primarily of gases, mostly of nitrogen(78%) and oxygen
The atmosphere behaves physically like a fluid
The atmosphere is more the 200km thick
More then half the mass of the atmosphe
Ancient Uses of the Oceans
Egyptian and Mesopotamian Cultures and early trade (~3200 BC)
Minoans as the first true maritime power (~2000 BC-1200 BC)
Phoenician and Greek colonization of the Mediterranean (~1200 BC - 400 BC)
Polynesian colonization of Sout