January 30, 2012
Intro to Human Evolution Lab Notes:
Evolution: observable fact. Something we can watch occur or see in fossil
Evolutionary Theory: used to explain how, why and at what rate.
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid
A molecule found in all c
Intro to Human Evolution
January 23, 2012
Anthropology: the study of humanity in all times and places.
It is a holistic science.
o Considers the full history of humanity, from the very beginning
until the present.
o Every aspect of culture is connected t
070:102 Introduction to Human Evolution
Final Exam Study Guide.
-For the Hominins: the exam will include questions of their significant
anatomy and ecology such as diets, adaptations, and behaviors.
-Generally, the test is not just definitions of key term
Intro to Human Evolution Midterm Review Sheet
Anthropology: The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of
human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archeology, linguistics and
physical, or biological, anthropology.
LEVELS OF SELECTION
For natural selection to proceed there must be heritable variation in phenotypes and
the variation in phenotype must be associated with differential survival and/or
reproduction, i.e., there must be differential fitness. By inference t
For evolutionists the revolution in DNA technology has been a major advance. The
reason is that the very nature of DNA allows it to be used as a "document" of
evolutionary history: comparisons of the DNA sequences of various genes betw
MUTATION AND MIGRATION
We have learned how selection can change the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in
populations. Selection typically eliminates variation from within populations. (The
general exception to this claim is with the class selection mod
MUTATION AND VARIATION
Mutation is the ultimate source of variation. Without variation there could be no evolution, so
mutations are of great importance to evolution. Important to point out that existing variation can
be reshuffled by a variety of mechani
Video Assignment #2: Becoming Human
070:102 Introduction to Human Evolution
Name: Emily Corkum
Lab Section: 03
Please answer the questions briefly in a few sentences. Hand in the assignment
during your lab section the week following the film.
1. What do
NTRODUCTION TO POPULATION GENETICS
In this and the next few lectures we will be dealing with population genetics which
generally views evolution as changes in the genetic makeup of populations. This is a
somewhat reductionist approach: if we could underst
PHENOTYPE AND GENOTYPE
Definitions: phenotype is the constellation of observable traits; genotype is the genetic
endowment of the individual. Phenotype = genotype + development (in a given environment). To
consider these in the context of evolutionary bio
INTEGRATION OF EVOLUTIONARY FORCES
Selection leads to an increase in the average fitness of the population. Illustrated by
the following example. Recall that the average fitness ("w bar") = w AA p2 + wAa 2pq +
waa q2. Now consider the case where p=.2, q=
INFERRING PROCESS FROM PATTERN
The mechanics of population genetics attempts to describe how alleles and genotypes
change from one generation to the next. Often evolutionary biologists cannot study
these transitions in real time, either because the genera
FITNESS AND ADAPTATION. I
General observation: most organisms show "good fit" to their environment. Desert
plants (desiccation resistant), marine organisms (fusiform body), cryptic insects All
generally can be placed in the context of the environment pres
FITNESS AND ADAPTATION II
Adaptation is a central issue or concept in evolution, but one must be very specific
when defining or deciding that one is actually "looking at" an adaptation or that
something is adapted. The issue revolves around the general be
EVOLUTION OF BEHAVIOR
One general view in the study of the evolution of behavior is that behaviors can have
a genetic basis. This is not to say that all behaviors are genetically based; indeed
many behaviors are entirely culturally transmitted or learned
Genetic drift refers to random fluctuations in allele frequencies due to chance events
(see figure 6.4, pg. 142). The previous lectures have all dealt with deterministic
(predictable) evolutionary forces often referred to as linear pressures.
Intro to Human Evolution Exam 2
March 19, 2012
Relative Dating: you can only determine some things age relative to something else. The
relationship between different objects.
o Geological principle
o Comes from strata
o It comes from a disc
Human Evolution Vocabulary Ch. 10-16
Mosaic Evolution: A pattern of evolution in which the rate of evolution in on functional
system varies from that in other systems. For example, in hominin evolution, the dental
system, locomotor system, and
Quantitative genetics deals with the genetics of continuously varying characters.
Rather than considering changes in the frequencies of specific alleles of genotypes,
quantitative genetics seeks to "quantify" changes in the frequency