WHAT IS A SITE, ANYWAY?
Defining a site is a difficult proposition though we tend to define it as discrete
behavioral entities. But surface sites are not really easy to define as villages, camps,
etc. Sometimes only a few sherds or flint flakes are found
SITE FORMATION PROCESSES
We cant do archaeology without a geology and a notion of how sites were formed.
Archaeologists literally study the dirt that composes a site because understanding the
nature and order of deposits could answer many questions about
SHORT CASE STUDY (not in textbook)
Julian Steward and David Hurst Thomas studied a large region in Nevada
known as the Reese River Valley.
Thomas used a land-use model based on ethnographic data collected by Steward who
surveyed Shoshone who lived there h
PREPARING SPECIMENS FOR ANALYSIS
Washing, when applicable, will bring out details (such as makers marks and/or
colors and patterns). Washing in water is obviously not for baskets and other materials
that might be damaged or decompose, or where important r
MIDDLE RANGE RESEARCH DISCIPLINES
Archaeologists must infer behaviors from the remains of those behaviors they
after all, cannot see the behaviors of people from the past. These inferences must be
based upon some kind of logic, and archaeologists use the
LITHIC ANALYSIS & PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
A Brief History of Lithic Tools:
Earliest stone tools manufactured 2.5 mya by Homo Habilus in Olduvai Gorge in
Tanzania. H.habilus occupations found in 70 different locations. Called Oldowan,
H.habilus tools are mos
How time is notated:
AD (anno domini) as AD1920 for example.
BC (before Christ) as 2000 BC for example, which would be 4006 years ago
BP (before present, actually years before AD 1950, (the year radiocarbon dating was
discovered) written as 2000 BP for ex
Artifact Any moveable object that has been used, modified or manufactured by
Ecofact - Plant or animal remains found at a site (includes copralites).
Feature Immovable structures, layers, pits (firepits, hearths) and postholes, which
CONTEXT and Site Formation
In trying to figure out what a site was used for we must not forget that the
archaeological record is only the contemporary evidence left over from past behavior.
The archaeological record is also rarely a direct reflection of p
Doing archaeology consists of two methods: Surveys and Excavations.
The Archaeological Survey can reveal important information:
1. where sites are located;
2. how people use(d) the landscape;
3. tells researcher a little bit abo
ABSOLUTE DATING TECHNIQUES
Tree ring dating, or Dendrochronology, was developed by astronomer Andrew
Douglass (1867-1962) in the 1920s, is based on the observation that in winter when
trees are dormant, dark rings appear in cutaways of trees, and during s
SCIENCE is defined as a search for universals by means of logical, verifiable
(reproducible) inquiry. Scientific research proceeds from the making and testing of
hypotheses Wikipedia defines hypothesis in this way:
A hypothesis is a suggested explanation