Chapter 5
Pseudo-random functions
Pseudorandom functions (PRFs) and their cousins, pseudorandom permutations (PRPs), gure as central tools
in the design of protocols, especially those for shared-key cryptography. At one level, PRFs and PRPs can be
used to

f ( t ) = L -1 cfw_F ( s )
1.
1
s
n!
s n +1
1
3.
Table of Laplace Transforms
F ( s ) = L cfw_ f ( t )
t n , n = 1, 2,3,K
5.
sin ( at )
9.
t sin ( at )
sin ( at ) - at cos ( at )
(s
2
+ a2 )
22
2
2
13.
cos ( at ) - at sin ( at )
15.
sin ( at + b )
17.
sinh

Chapter 9
Message authentication
In most peoples minds, privacy is the goal most strongly associated to cryptography. But message authentication
is arguably even more important. Indeed you may or may not care if some particular message you send out
stays

Chapter 8
Hash Functions
A hash function usually means a function that compresses, meaning the output is shorter than the input. Often,
such a function takes an input of arbitrary or almost arbitrary length to one whose length is a xed number,
like 160 bi

Chapter 7
Public-key encryption
The idea of a public-key cryptosystem (PKC) was proposed by Die and Hellman in their pioneering paper [72]
in 1976. Their revolutionary idea was to enable secure message exchange between sender and receiver without
ever hav

Chapter 6
Private-key encryption
The symmetric setting considers two parties who share a key and will use this key to imbue communicated data
with various security attributes. The main security goals are privacy and authenticity of the communicated
data.

Chapter 4
Block ciphers
Block ciphers are the central tool in the design of protocols for shared-key cryptography (aka. symmetric)
cryptography. They are the main available technology we have at our disposal. This chapter will take a look
at these objects

Chapter 3
Pseudo-random bit generators
In this chapter, we discuss the notion of pseudo-random generators. Intuitively, a P SRG is a deterministic
program used to generate long sequence of bits which looks like random sequence, given as input a short rand

Chapter 2
One-way and trapdoor functions
One Way functions, namely functions that are easy to compute and hard to invert, are an extremely
important cryptographic primitive. Probably the best known and simplest use of one-way functions, is for
passwords.

Encryption: Historical Glance
The most ancient and basic problem of cryptography is secure communication over an insecure channel.
Party
A wants to send to party B a secret message over a communication line which may be tapped by an
adversary.
The traditi