OBJECT: To verify the photon theory of light as applied to the photoelectric effect.
EQUIPMENT LIST: RCA 934 phototube, two Fluke 37 multimeters, Hewlett-Packard
6235A Triple Output Power Supply, Halogen Table Lamp, set of light filte
1. What is the energy range (in eV's) of the visible light photon energy?
2. If a certain metal with a work function of W=2.5 eV is illuminated by monochromatic light
of wavelength 3500 , what is the maximum kine
The Faraday Effect
To observe the interaction of light and matter, as modified by the presence of a magnetic
field, and to apply the classical theory of matter to the observations. You will measure the
Verdet constant for several mater
The Farady effect
1. What is a polarizer? How does it work?
2. Briefly describe the physical origin of the Faraday rotation.
3. Materials which exhibit natural optical activity (plane of polarization rotates with no magnetic
X-RAY DIFFRACTION in POWDERS
To learn x-ray powder-pattern diffraction techniques, to verify Vegard's
law for copper-nickel alloys, to determine the nickel content in some American and
Canadian "nickels", and to identify an unknown sample.
Fresnel Equations and Electromagnetic Boundary Conditions
Note: Prior to reading this write-up you should read the Background information on Fresnels
equations from the course webpage.
to test experimentally Fresnel equations for the case of a non-c
Fresnel equations and electromagnetic boundary conditions
1. Write down the boundary conditions for electromagnetic radiation at a flat interface
that separates vacuum from a transparent material with index of refraction n and show
To understand the various interactions of gamma rays with matter.
To calibrate a gamma ray scintillation spectrometer, using gamma rays
of known energy, and use it to measure the energy of an unknown
To use positron annihilat
1. Describe how a scintillation counter works, starting from the entrance of an energetic charged
particle into a scintillator, and ending with an electrical pulse at the output of the
2. Sketch and explai
THE ZEEMAN EFFECT
To measure how an applied magnetic field affects the optical
emission spectra of mercury vapor and neon. The results are compared with
the expectations derived from the vector model for the addition of atomic and
The Zeeman effect
1. Draw a diagram that shows the effect of a weak magnetic field on the otherwise
degenerate substates involved in the transitions which produce the green line (5460.7 A)
and the yellow doublet (5769.6 A and 5790.7
THE SPEED OF LIGHT
OBJECT: To determine the speed of light and to learn the operation and use of a
laser beam expander (Gaussian optics), an acousto-optic modulator, a half wave
plate, and a beam splitter cube.
INTRODUCTION: Historical Note: Galileo tried
Speed of light
1. Describe the function and operation of each of the following components of the
a. Half wave plate
b. Acousto-Optic modulator
c. Cube beam splitter
d. Time interval counter
2. It was thought in the 1800's
THE FRANCK-HERTZ EXPERIMENT
OBJECT: To measure the excitation potential of mercury using the Franck-Hertz
REQUIRED READING: Melissinos & Napolitano Chapter 1.
EQUIPMENT LIST: Mercury vapor triode, oven and control unit (
Scientific), rheostat, mul
1. Considering that the energy of the first excited state of the mercury atom is about 5.0 eV above
that of the ground state, what is the maximum energy that an electron with 4.0 eV of kinetic
energy can impart to a merc
THE RAMAN EFFECT
To learn optical detection techniques.
To measure the Raman spectrum of some simple organic liquids.
To use Raman scattering to determine the composition of an unknown liquid mixture.
APPARATUS: Continuum Minilite 10 Hz pulsed YA
1. Explain the principle of operation of the Raman spectrometer. Show a
1. Briefly explain the difference between Reighley and Raman scattering. Which
type of scattering results in a longer wavelength than
The Proper Lifetime of the Muon
Object. To measure the mean life of cosmic ray muons. This experiment will give
you exposure to fast signal processing, simple amplifiers and oscilloscope operation. You
will learn about using a photom ultiplier for char ge
Proper lifetime of the muon
The muon is an elementary particle and one of the fundamental constituents of matter.
Muons are very similar to electrons, apart from the fact that a muon has about 200 times
more mass than an electron. Mu
IMPORTANT: READ BEFORE STARTING MUON LIFETIME EXPERIMENT
1. Note on Lemo connectors
Most connectors in this experiments are sub-miniature push-pull Lemo coaxial types. CAUTION Handle the Lemo connectors with care the cables are easily destroyed. To remove
Preparatory questions 1. Explain the principle of operation of the Michaelson interferometer. How could Michelson and Morely detect the presence of the ether using this interferometer? 2. What happens when a piece of glass (or other
Objectives: Interferometers are basic optical tools used to precisely measure
wavelength, distance, index of refraction, and temporal coherence of optical beams.
This lab will help you understand the principles of interferometry, you
1. Explain the difference between continuous wave and pulsed NMR.
2. What is the spin relaxation time? Describe how it is measured with pulsed NMR.
Discuss how it can be obtained with continuous wave NMR.
3. Why should the proton