Week 10: Climate and Greenhouse Effect - Review
1) Composition of the modern atmosphere. 3 elements make up over 99.9% of the atmosphere; Nitrogen, Oxygen,
2) Greenhouse Gases who they are and what they do
Water vapor, methane, and carbon dioxide a
Lecture 12A: Climate & the Greenhouse Effect
The Atmosphere & Winds
The book has an interesting section on the evolution of the atmosphere; you
will not be res
Impacts of Sea-level Rise
Venice: Poster Child
Atlantic City, NJ
Piazza San Marco acqua alta
Ammerman & McClennen 2000
Flooding of NYC: An Inconv
What exit? Looking for
America on the NJ Turnpike
Basic facts about energy, including the nature of
energy resources, the history of peoples energy
use, and the future of energy supply and
Origin of fossil fuels (oil, natur
Week 9 Review
1.)What is Infiltration?
Infiltration is water that soaks into the ground; source of groundwater
2) What is the definition of groundwater?
Groundwater is water that collects or flows beneath the Earth's surface, filling the p
Week 12: Impacts of Sea-level Rise on NJ - Review
1) What causes sea-level rise?
Thermal expansion ocean has gained heat, Melting glaciers & ice capsmelting land ice adds to
ocean volume, but not sea ice
2) At what rate is sea level currently rising globa
Week 13 and 14: Energy Resources - Review
1) Types of energy supply in the U. S.
85-90% of US energy come from fossil fuelscoal, natural gas, oil
10% come fromhydroelectric, nuclear power
2) Renewable vs. nonrenewable energy resources.
Week 11: Coasts - Review
1) Definition of a beach and a barrier island.
Barrier Island is a long, narrow beach separated from mainland by a lagoon. A beach is an
accumulation of sand and gravel located at transition zone between land and sea.
2) What is a
Rivers & Flooding
1) What is a river and its floodplain?
A river is a large natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another such stream. A
floodplain is an area of low-lying ground adjacent to a river, formed mainly of river se
The major coastal processes including waves,
currents, tides, and sea level change.
What causes coastal erosion, how it happens, and
what change it creates.
The role of storms in changing coasts.
How we attempt to stabilize beaches.
Coasts are Dyn
What is Weather?
Earths atmosphere - mixture of gases called air.
Atmosphere governs physical conditions of
weather - what is happening outdoors in a
specific place at a given time.
Temperature, Pressure, Moisture content,
Short period of time (
Chronic Arsenic Exposure Is Harmful Taiwan
and Bangladesh have well water that is
naturally contaminated with arsenic. Drinking
water can result in skin lesions and skin cancer.
Lecture 1B: Earths Major Systems"
How Earth Systems Interact
A system is a group of
that together form a
Four systems int
Golcuk, Turkey; 1999!
What earthquakes are
Where earthquakes occur
How fault ruptures
How we measure and
What earthquake hazards
How scientists attempt to
Total vertical collapse from
story shift - Mexico City, 1985
Effects of Earthquakes!
- ground shaking, tilting, ground rupture!
- res and oods!
- landslides, liquefaction, and tsunamis!
Banda Aceh shore,
Indonesia: before and
after 2004 Dec. 26th
Boxing Day tsunami
The Great Wave off Kanagawa
Sea wave of local or distant origin that results
Volcanic Hazards 2
Pyroclastic Flow, Montserrat, 1996
Craters and vent"
Caldera: collapsed craters from explosive
Hot springs and geysers"
Plumbing System of a Volcano
Bingham Canyon Copper Mine, Utah!
Minerals and Society!
dependent upon materials extracted
uses enormous amounts of resources!
e.g. 40 minerals are used to mak
Rivers and Flooding
Delaware River at Trenton, 4/
What watersheds are!
How scientists describe and measure rivers,
including discharge, ow, base level, and
How rivers erode, carry, and deposit sediment!
What causes o
U nstable Land
How driving and resisting forces control slope stability!
What factors initiate slope failure, including weather,
earthquakes, and slope steepening!
The characteristics of the different types of mass
movements, including falls,
Manasquan Reservoir - Howell, NJ
Hydrosphere contains large
amounts of water:"
- 97.2% is ocean water"
- 2.8% is freshwater
<1% of water on Earth is
liquid freshwater, mostly
Tsunami retreating from Sri Lanka,
December 26, 2004;
Over 230,000 deaths in 14 countries.
Top: Sandy comes to Jersey, Oct. 30,
Left: Port-au-Prince, Haiti Jan. 12,
Themes of the Text