Breccia gravel-sized, angular clasts
Conglomerate gravel-sized, rounded clasts
Sandstone most grains are sand sized
o Quartz Sandstone
Arkose sand-sized particle
Graywacke muddy sandstone
Siltstone most grains are finer than s
Classification of Rocks!
Solidified molten rock!
1,100C to 650C!
Earth - mostly igneous rock !
Magma subsurface melt!
Lava melt at surface!
Magma erupts via
50-60 per year worldwide!
US: 2-3 per year (mostly Alaska)!
In the past 100 years, ~100,000 people
killed worldwide by volcanic eruptions!
9/27/14 eruption of Mount Ontake, Japan
killed approximately 50 people!
The Majority of t
Golcuk, Turkey; 1999!
Earthquake history: Strike-Slip Fault in Turkey. Quakes migrated E to W
over 60 yrs; lack of activity in W identified a seismic gap marking vicinity
of a Mw 7.6 quake in 1999!
Struck area of
Plate Tectonics 2
apart as it sits
astride the MidAtlantic Ridge.
Plate Tectonic Theory Explains!
Age and origin of ocean crust!
Distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes!
Location and age of mountain belts!
Plate Tectonics mec
Planet Earth: Introduction!
What Geologists Do!
Explore for resources e.g. water, oil, gas!
Study natural hazards e.g. earthquakes!
Solve pollution and waste disposal
What Geologists Do?!
New Jersey Geological and Water Survey
CHAPTER 2: Journey to the Center of the Earth
1. The shape of Earths magnetic field is approximately that of a _.
dipole (such as that produced by a bar magnet)
torus, a donut-shaped ring parallel to Earths equator
CHAPTER 4: The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics
1. Under the theory of plate tectonics, the plates themselves are _.
a. discrete pieces of lithosphere at the surface of the solid Earth that move with respect to
CHAPTER 1: Cosmology and the Birth of Earth
1. The branch of science that studies the structure and history of the Universe is _.
CHAPTER 3: Drifting Continents and Spreading Seas
1. Wegeners evidence for a united Pangaea was so compelling that virtually all geologists agreed with
the idea of continental drift during his lifetime.
R. Williams (ST Scl)-NASA
W. W. Norton
W. W. Norton
J. Hester and P. Scowen/NASA
original artwork by Gary Hincks
The nebula condenses into a swirling disc,
with a central ball surrounded
Registering For SmartWork
You will need:
A valid email address
Our course enrollment key
A SmartWork Registration code
1. New Users: Create An Account
Visit smartwork.wwnorton.com and create a new
account as a first-time user.
Click the link in the c
Plate Tectonics I:
Unifying concept in geosciences"
Introduced in 1960s"
Early evidence from rocks and fossils"
Later evidence from geophysics and marine
Earths lithosphere divi
Classification of Rocks
Metamorphism: to change form!
Metamorphic rocks: !
Solid state changes in texture or
mineralogy to an existing rock!
What Causes Change
- Fundamental concept of the geosciences introduced in early 1900s
Principles of Plate Tectonics
7 large plates and some smaller plates
the plates move
plates deform at edges
interiors are quiet
Q: How fast do plates move?
-Ultimate end of weathering:
granite weathering quartz, clay, ions
1. Clastic: Pieces of sediment cemented together
Clay & quartz
2. Chemical: Precipitated from water near Earths surface
His scale defines part
Explosion in the Pacific (possibly phreatic = when magma heats ground/surface water)
Loudest explosion in history; heard in western Australia
Explosion generated tsunamis
Longer lasting effect:
Volcanic dust shot into stratos
The Ocean Floor
- not much is known about it
H.M.S. Challenger Expedition
First true oceanographic cruise
713 days at sea
covered 79,274 miles
492 deep sea soundings
133 bottom dredges
about 4700 new species
- Part of the task of understanding the geologic history of an area is recording & describing how
rocks have been deformed
- Sagami Bay
Secret acids to soften rocks and use their shells to grind holes int
- Rocks tell us about the Earths history
Clicker Q: Rocks are in imperfect record of earths history because
Earth is dynamic and the record erodes
Two Ways to Date Geologic Events
1. Relative dating
how old rocks are in relation to one anot
Murchison & Sedgwick
Murchison Silurian; time planes (chronostratigraphic)
Sedgwick Cambrian; rocks in Wales
An interval of time overlaps between what they considered the Silurian & the Cambrian
- The geologic time scale is based on a compo
Distribution of Water
Reservoir any environment where water is stored
River & lakes: 0.1%
On Earths surface:
- Seismic waves are one of the main tools used to interpret Earths internal structure
Study of earthquake waves
instruments used to measure these waves
record vertical or horizontal ground motion
Rock Deformation: Faults and Folds
Attractive landscape features
Provide evidence of tectonic activity
Elongate, linear belts
Tectonic plate interactions orogenesis
Economically important - drive world economies!
Historically important - influence human history!
Iron, Copper, Gold, Diamonds, Gems!
What is a Mineral?!
A naturally occurring,!
inorganic solid, !
with an ordered internal structure
PLANET EARTH 01 Sp17
PRIN T V I E W
Spring 2017: Section 01