Environmental lapse rate decreases more rapidly with height than the dry adiabatic rate the atmosphere is absolutely unstable. Air temp increases air capacity to hold water vapor increases. I f saturated stable air is lifted to a level where it becomes sa
Heat and Energy
1. Kinetic energy : motion 2. Temperature: measure of average speed of atoms and molecules a. Warm: less dense b. Cold: more dense 3. Absolute zero: no motion 4. Heat : energy being transferred a. Conduction b. Convection c. Radiation
A. Wiens Law: the hotter the object, the shorter the radiation B. Stefan-Boltzmann Law: amount of radiation energy proportional to temperature C. Short/Long wave radiation a. Absorbers: gets warmer b. Reflects: gets colder c. Rate depends o
Controls of Temperature
1. Daytime warming a. Highest around 3-5 pm 2. Nighttime cooling a. Radiation cooling 3. Controls of temperature a. Latitude, land, water, ocean currents, elevation 4. Isotherms a. Lines connecting places that have the same te
Moisture: water exists in three phases V apor, liquid, solid
A. B. I.
II. III. IV. V. V I.
Energy is absorbed and given off when changing phases Processes where heat absorbed by a substance and taken away from environment Melting: solid to
A. B. C. D. E. F. G.
Cloud formation: formed when air temp cools down to the dew point temp Mixing: when two air parcels become saturated when combined Fog formation: cloud on the ground Radiation fog: thin and spotty and burns of easily Adve
1. Warm cloud process: clouds form at temp above freezing are called warm clouds a. Occur through collision and coalescence b. All cloud drops are liquid water 2. Probability of a collision a. Larger drops have smaller surf
1. Air mass: air within circulation cell that shows relatively high degree of homogeneity 2. Direction of flow over high and low pressure a. Northern Hemisphere: clockwise and outward with High pressure b. Counterclockwise and inward with
1. Meteorological Organizations a. WMO: World Meteorology Organization b. National Weather Service 2. Methods of Forecasting a. Persistence: future weather will be the same as present weather b. Nowcasting: weather systems will move in t
1. Stages of Development a. Cumulus b. Growing c. Mature: downdraft d. Dissipating: downdraft spreads and cuts off updraft 2. Mechanisms of Development a. Air mass b. Orographic i. Mountains ii. Fronts 3. Severe thunderstorm a. diamete
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Fujita Scale: weak F0-F5 Strong Most frequently occur between 4-6 pm Funnel cloud: tornado that doesnt touch the ground Diameter 300-2000 feet a. Few meters to almost a mile Usually last for a few minutes and hav
1. Hurricanes, typhoons, cyclones 2. Average size 1,000-10,000 km 3. Development a. Tropical disturbance- cluster of thunderstorms with an organized circulation b. Tropical depression- winds 20-34 knots c. Tropical storms - winds 35-64 kno
1. Inferior image - sharp temperature gradient a. Objects look smaller from higher altitudes 2. Superior image - objects look bigger a. Images displaced towards warmer, less dense air 3. Halo- i ce crystals refracted a. Sundogs
Heat transfer in the atmos phe re Conduction Transfer of heat from molecule to molecule within a substance. Convection the transfer of heat by the mass movement of a fluid Radiation transfer of energy by the rapid oscillations of electromagnetic fie lds i
Meteorology Notes Computation of Relative Humidity
4:26 PM4:26 PM
Tuesday, October 9, 2007
Suppose it is snowing outside and the air is saturated. The air temperature and dew point are 28F, and the actual mixing ration is 3 g/kg. If this air is brought in
Exam 3 Precipitation development Warm cloud process c louds that form at temperatures above freezing are called warm c louds. Precipitation production in a warm cloud occurs through collides and coalescence All cloud drops are liquid water Probability of
Exam 4 C hapter 9, 10, 11 Weather Forecasting Meteorological Organizations WMO World Meteorological organization (consists of about 175 nations) National Weather Service The NWS is a department within NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administ ration
1. Troposphere a. Surface to 11 km b. Contains all weather and air currents 2. Tropopause 3. Stratosphere a. 11-20 km b. Air temperature starts to increase with height 4. Mesosphere a. Air thin, low pressure, coldest 5. Thermosphere a. hot
History and Instrumentation
1. Timeline a. 15-1700: instruments developed b. 1800s: better/ more instruments with invention of telegraph c. 1920: concept of air masses and weather fronts formulated in Norway d. 1940: 3D view of the atmosphere e. 1950s
2. Latent heat is released when dew forms (water vapor condenses) 3. The dew point temperature then dec reas es, as there is less moisture in the air. This allows the temperature to continue falling 9. Condensation Processes a. Cloud condensation nucl ei
12. Precipitation Development a. Warm Cloud Proc ess i. Clouds form at temperatures above freezing, but the entire cloud is not necessarily above freezing. However, all droplets remain liquid water. ii. Collision and coalescenc e occurs here d roplets con
13. Important Forces in Met eorology a. Pressure gradient force directed from higher pressure to lower pressure b. In general, warmer temperatures result when certain air pressures occur at higher than normal altitudes. Lower altitudes result in cooler te