Alkyl halides are a class of compounds where a halogen atom or atoms are bound to an sp 3 orbital of an alkyl
CHCl3 (Chloroform: organic solvent)
CF2Cl2 (Freon-12: refrigerant CFC)
CF3CHClBr (Halothane: anesthetic)
Halogen atoms are m
The Study of Chemical Reactions
The complete, step by step description of exactly which bonds are broken, formed, and in which order.
The study of the energy changes that accompany chemical and physical transformations. It allow
Structure and Synthesis of Alkenes
Alkenes (olefins) are hydrocarbons which have carboncarbon double bonds.
A double bond is a bond and a bond.
Double bond B.D.E.
= 146 kcal/mol
= 83 kcal/mol
Therefore B.D.E. must = 63 kcal/mol.
A bond is wea
This is study of the 3 dimensional arrangement in space of molecules.
In organic chemistry, subtle differences in spatial arrangements can give rise to prominent effects.
E.g. the isomers of butenoic acid:
The cis isomer (maleic acid) is t
Reactions of Alkenes
Since bonds are stronger than bonds, double bonds tend to react to convert the double bond into bonds
This is an addition reaction.
(Other types of reaction have been substitution and elimination).
Addition reactions are typically exo
Synthesis and Structure of Alcohols
Alcohols can be considered organic analogues of water.
Alcohols are usually classified as primary, secondary and tertiary.
Alcohols with the hydroxyl bound directly to an aromatic (benzene) ring are called phenols.
Alkynes or acetylenes are compounds that contain a carboncarbon triple bond.
H C C H
CH3CH2 C C H
H3C C C CH3
The triple bond results in a molecular formula of CnH2n-2
0 elements of unsaturation