Compounds containing a carbon-carbon triple bond
-overall many reactions are similar to alkene reactions
therefore, electrophilic additions to multiple bonds and oxidation reactions
Follow same rules as seen for alkenes
There are very few organic compounds that dont have H, such as CCl4
Most organic compounds are non metal
Organometallic chemistry relates to the organic compounds that contain metals
Vital force concept of organic chemists, how do you prove
How to name ring system
o Decide how many carbon does the ring system has as a whole
o The first part of the name remind us that there are two ring systems
sharing, so it is bicycle because there are two rings sharing the atoms
o Two atoms sharing two ri
Skeletal structures will be used in chemdraw and preferably everywhere else
Electron has wave properties so it cannot be located precisely, we can only say
where it is likely to be in space
p orbital (lobe shape, one lobe pink and other blue
chiral carbon, sp3 hybridized carbon with four different substituents, it can be
if there is a chiral carbon, the molecule is chiral
o higher the atomic number the higher the priority
o if tie, look for first difference figur
Chapter 3: Stereoisomerism and Chirality
Stereochemistry: The study of molecules as three-dimensional objects.
3.1 Chirality The Handedness of Molecules
Mirror Image: The reflection of an object in a mirror.
Relationship between object in mirror and sel
1.1 Electronic Structure of Atoms
Shell A region of space around a nucleus that can be occupied by electrons,
corresponding to a principal quantum number.
Quantized - Having discrete values for energy and momentum
o Shells occur only at quantized energi
Chapter 2: Alkanes & Cycloalkanes
1) Hydrocarbon a compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen.
2) Alkanes - Saturated Hydrocarbons; they contain only carbon-carbon single
a. In this context saturated means that each carbon has the maximum
Chapter 4: Acids and Bases
4.1 Arrhenius Acids and bases
An acid is a substance that dissolves in water to produce H+ ions.
A base is a substance that dissolves in water to produce OH- ions.
4.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
acid is a proton donor.
- Chemical shift depends on the:
1) Electronegativity of nearby atoms.
2) Hybridization of Adjacent atoms.
3) Effects from adjacent pi bonds.
Coupling: Look at the magnitude of it!
- Equivalent nuclei do not couple (split) each other; splitting observed o
Chapter 4: Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics
Almost every chemical or physical change is accompanied by the absorption
or the evolution of heat.
Thermochemistry: The branch of chemistry that studies heat effects and what they
tell us about che
Chapter 3: Acids and Bases
All compounds identified as acids undergo essentially the same chemical
reactions when they act as acids.
All compounds identified as bases undergo essentially the same chemical
reactions when they act as bases.
3.1 Bronsted A
Valence Bond Theory:
1.1: The Covalent Bond Theory
All the bonds in organic compounds are covalent bonds.
The sharing of electrons in a covalent bond by two atoms is energetically
favorable under ordinary conditions on the earth.
Energy is relea
Chapter 2: Molecular Orbital Theory
2.1 Molecular Orbitals
1) The number of combination orbitals equals the number of atomic orbitals
that are combined to make them.
2) The total energy of the combination orbitals is equal to the total energy of th
Meso compound is achiral
o Has plane of symmetry
o It helps to draw a newman projection in eclipsed form, rotate 180 degrees
and youll see if there is symmetry
Newman is a three-dimensional
Draw flat, to see the symmetry, dont care about axial or equator