CHAPTER ELEVEN - LIPIDS AND MEMBRANES
1) Fatty acid groups are referred to as _ groups.
Acyl groups fatty acids covalently bonded to eukaryotic proteins
2) The double bonds in naturally occurring fatty acids are usually _ isomers.
Cis both R groups on the
Notice the huge acceleration caused by
enzyme catalysis. The least shown
here is more than a million fold. The
reactions would go without catalysis
but in some cases they would take
Carbonic Anhydrase was the least
accelerated reaction in that t
These are metabolites they both happen
to be carbohydrates as well.
This is the same protein from 3 species it
is the TATA box binding protein, used to
help start RNA synthesis. Sulfolobus is an
Archaeal single celled prokaryote,
Arabidopsis is a higher p
Dihydroxyacetone is a ketose (it has a
ketone) or a Ketotriose (ketone with 3
carbons). D and L Glyceraldehyde are
aldoses, or Aldotrioses.
Glyceraldehyde was the standard of
comparison when Fischer set up the D
and L system.
If you visualize rotating Dgl
When a biochemist wants to study a
protein he is faced with the fact that a
tissue or organ might contain hundreds or
thousands of different proteins and you
have to get rid of all the ones you dont
want so you can focus on the single
protein that you do
This is Columbus Circle in New York City.
Traffic circles make a good metaphor for the
Citric Acid Cycle, because many pathways
connect with it in some way and many
metabolites pass through.
Acetyl CoA is the fuel for the Citric Acid
Cycle. The two carbon
Human red blood cells (erythrocytes) have no
nuclei and are packed wall to wall with
Hemoglobin. The heme group of hemoglobin
gives blood its red color.
Here you can see that the beta chain of
hemoglobin has 146 amino acid residues,
mostly arranged into 8
During a sprint race, sugar is burned to
make ATP faster than oxygen can be
supplied, so it is metabolized
Glycolysis breaks down sugar and
produces lactic acid.
Normally when enough oxygen is
available pyruvate would go into muscle
I will be teaching about the 2 branches of the
Pentose Phosphate Pathway.
I will NOT be teaching very much about the Calvin
Cycle mainly 1) that it exists and 2) generally
what it is.
The Calvin Cycle contains elements of
Gluconeogenesis and the Pentose P
In protein chemistry, Trypsin and Chymotrypsin are useful tools because
they always cut up a protein in the same way so you can get a
consistent set of fragments.
Restriction Cleavage Enzymes allow us to do that with double stranded
DNA. They are very pre
A convenient way to represent fatty acids
is with numbers. Palmitic Acid would be
16:0 because it has sixteen carbons and
no double bonds.
Palmitic acid is a SATURATED fatty acid,
that is what we call F.A. with no double
Oleic Acid is mono-unsatura
Glycogen chapters often start with pictures of a marathon or bike race.
Your muscles store up glycogen and use it during exercise.
The amount of glycogen in your muscles, and your body weight,
determine how far you can run, easily.
Hitting the Wall is a t
Answer key for Biochem and Female Repro. Quiz
Given on: 3/7/15
Biochemistry Chapter 11 (Lipids and membranes)
1) Fatty acid groups are referred to as _ groups
2) The double bonds in naturally occurring fatty acids are usually _ isomers
3) The essential fatty acids are
a. Linolenic and Alpha-Linolenic A
This is a car assembly line, with robotic welders the
comparison is being made between this process and protein
synthesis in the ribosome.
This is a bacterial ribosome it is a 70S assembly made up of
a small 30S subunit and a large 50S subunit.
Jane Goodall, who has studied chimpanzees
for decades, and who has attended Rutgers
graduation ceremonies, with a friend.
Of the 153 amino acid residues in the primary
structure of Myoglobin, human Mb is identical
to chimp Mb at 152 positions, there is on
These are G Proteins we will
learn about them in this chapter.
Signal Transduction means that a
molecular signal is translated into
specific actions in cells and organs.
Often in signal transduction there are
(multiple) stages of amplification,
Mitochondria are green in this picture. Each
cell has many mitochondria.
Mitochondria eat nutrients and breathe
oxygen and then supply us with the ATP
This is a simple representation of the
Chemi-Osmotic Coupling Hypothesis.
Electron transport (f
A hummingbird, and a model of
ATP. The big green ball is a
hydrated Magnesium ion thats
associating with the negatively
charged phosphates. Phosphorus
is purple in this model.
We get our energy by oxidizing the
foods we eat. This is a summary of
The point of this frontispiece is that
children resemble their parents
thanks to DNA. This chapter is
about how DNA and RNA work in
the cell. Chapter 5 is about DNA
and RNA in the laboratory.
The expression of genes is
controlled this is a zinc finger
This is a glass micropipette attached to a
membrane the red things are Acetylcholine
receptors, and this is a patch clamp
The point is to measure the flow of ions through
the receptor which is a ligand gated Sodium
This shows the curr