Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
Electron pairs surrounding a central atom keep as far away from each other as possible in
order to minimize mutual repulsion.
Four electron pairs around central atom
Lets first apply this principle to methane, C
Energy: The capacity to do work.
There are many different types of energy, and energy can be transformed from one type into
Consider your textbook. What types of energy does it have?
Gravitational Potential Energy
It can drop, compress a spring,
Writing Chemical Equations
Magnesium burns in air.
Burning is a reaction with oxygen, forming an oxide.
Magnesium + oxygen Magnesium oxide
Mg + O2 MgO (unbalanced)
2Mg + O2 2MgO (balanced)
Balancing uses coefficients to change the amounts of different sub
Acids are substances which give off H+ ions. We name the acids based on the negative ion which
is left over after the H+ ion is given off.
Negative ion suffix
hydro _ic acid
Organic chemistry is the study of compounds of carbon. This is a vast subject, since carbon
forms compounds in a huge variety of chains and rings, always with hydrogen and also commonly with
oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, sulfur and a varie
Nitrate ion is reasonably represented by the structure above, but experimental evidence shows
that every N-O bond is equivalent, and has a bond strength and bond length somewhere between that
of a single and double bond.
This means that there is
Methane, CH4, has a Lewis structure
This seems like an obvious structure, but lets analyze the bonding of carbon in detail.
Carbon has four valence electrons with a ground state outer shell configuration of 2s22p2.
This atom has an electron dot structure
Problem Set 10 Assignments
Group 1: Additional Problem #1 & 2
Mohamed El Hedi Bahri
Group 2: ch 17 #
Group 3: ch
Job Description for Sunday School Teachers
The teacher is an educator. In this capacity his concern is for the salvation and maturation of the
pupils placed in his charge.
The teacher is under the supervision of and is responsible