Practice Problems from Chapter 1-3
Problem 1
V
V2
V1
3
2
1
T1
T2 T
One mole of a monatomic ideal gas goes through a
quasistatic three-stage cycle (1-2, 2-3, 3-1) shown in
the Figure. T1 and T2 are giv
Lecture 10. Heat Engines and refrigerators (Ch. 4)
A heat engine any device that is capable of converting thermal
energy (heating) into mechanical energy (work). We will consider
an important class of
109
Center of hottest stars
Center of Sun,
nuclear reactions
Lecture 12.
Refrigerators. Toward
Absolute Zero
(Ch. 4)
107
Electronic/chemical energy
Surface of Sun, hottest boiling points
103
101
Liqui
Lecture 13. Thermodynamic Potentials (Ch. 5)
So far, we have been using the total internal energy U and, sometimes, the
enthalpy H to characterize various macroscopic systems. These functions are call
Lecture 14. More on Thermodynamic Potentials
Potential
Variables
U (S,V,N)
S, V, N
H (S,P,N)
S, P, N
F (T,V,N)
V, T, N
G (T,P,N)
P, T, N
dU (S , V , N ) = T dS PdV + dN
dH (S , P, N ) = T dS + VdP + d
Lecture 15. Phases of Pure Substances (Ch.5)
Up to now we have dealt almost exclusively with systems consisting of a
single phase. In this lecture, we will learn how more complicated, multiphase syste
Lecture 16. The van der Waals Gas (Ch. 5)
Nobel 1910
The simplest model of a liquid-gas phase
transition - the van der Waals model of
real gases grasps some essential
features of this phase transforma
Lecture 19. Boltzmann Statistics (Ch. 6)
We have followed the following logic:
1. Statistical treatment of isolated systems: multiplicity entropy the 2nd Law.
2. Thermodynamic treatment of systems in
Lecture 2 The First Law of
Thermodynamics (Ch.1)
Outline:
1. Internal Energy, Work, Heating
2. Energy Conservation the First Law
3. Quasi-static processes
4. Enthalpy
5. Heat Capacity
Internal Energy
Lecture 20. Continuous Spectrum, the Density of States
(Ch. 7), and Equipartition (Ch. 6)
Typically, its easier to work with the integrals rather than the sums. Thus, whenever
we consider an energy ra
Lecture 3. Combinatorics, Probability and
Multiplicity (Ch. 2 )
Combinatorics and probability
2-state paramagnet and Einstein solid
Multiplicity of a macrostate
Concept of Entropy (next lec.)
Dir
Lecture 4. Entropy and Temperature (Ch. 3)
In Lecture 3, we took a giant step towards the understanding why certain
processes in macrosystems are irreversible. Our approach was founded
on the followin
Lecture 5: 2nd and 3rd Laws of Thermodynamics
An isolated system, being initially in a non-equilibrium state, will evolve
from macropartitions with lower multiplicity (lower probability, lower
entropy
Lecture 6. Entropy of an Ideal Gas (Ch. 3)
Today we will achieve an important goal: well derive the equation(s) of state
for an ideal gas from the principles of statistical mechanics. We will follow t
Lecture 7. Thermodynamic Identities (Ch. 3)
S (U ,V , N ) k B ln (U ,V , N )
S
S
S
dS =
dU +
dV +
dN
U N ,V
V N ,U
N U ,V
1
S
=
U V , N T
P
S
=
V U , N T
S
=?
N U ,V
Diffusive
Lecture 8. Systems with a Limited Energy Spectrum
The definition of T in statistical mechanics is
consistent with our intuitive idea of the
temperature (the more energy we deliver to a system,
the hig
Physics 351
Thermal Physics
Final Exam
Date: 5/8/2012
There are 6 problems. Do all of them. Show all your work. Cross things
out neatly, DO NOT ERASE.
This is a closed textbook exam. You are allowed t
Thermal Physics = Thermodynamics + Statistical Mechanics
- conceptually, the most difficult subject of the undergraduate
physics program.
Thermodynamics provides a framework of relating the
macroscopi