Views of Motivation
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation drives activity from
within for its own sake.
Extrinsic motivation is external based on
reinforcements and punishments that may
Final Exam Study Guide
1. What are the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, evolutionary, biological, and cognitive perspectives?
Behavioral conditioning via reinforcements and punishments
Stress and Health
Stress- physical strain or psychological strain due to reacting to new circumstances
Models of stress and illness
Stress and unhealthy behavior model: stress leads to unhealthy behaviors in attempt to cope with st
What is social psychology?
How the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied
presence of others (Allport)
Social cognition the ways in which we interpret, analyze,
Motivation- the biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that act on or within you, initiating and
directing your behavior
What motivates our behavior?
Hierarchy of needs- ascends from basic biolo
Language and Cognition
Attention focusing consciousness on a limited range of experience
o Guided by combination of external stimulation and activated goals
o E.g., weapon focus
Selective attention- the process by which we focus on imp
Psychology lecture 1 NOLAN
Psyche- mind or soul logos word
Sensation and perception psychologists
Learning and memory
Physiological functions: hunger thirst sleep and sex
o Seems to imply no real answers
Psych Chapter 2 Notes
An anecdote is repeating a story to represent a whole population.
We have strong EVIDENCE that evolution happened.
However, there is no PROOF as in prove to everyone that it happened.
Applied science is looking to solve a very speci
The three methods of removing NT from the synapse are:
Reduce, reuse, recycle,
Absorption, glial reprocessing, excretion
Classical, operant, glia
Enzymatic degradation, reuptake, reprocessing by glia
Extinction can be achieved b
Nature vs. Nurture
Which do you think contributes more to the
development of a person?
A) Nature (genetics)
B) Nurture (the environment)
Why Does it Matter?
Peoples perception of themselves
Emotions, Stress, and Health
The Nature of Emotion
Measuring emotion is challenging. Each method has
strengths and weaknesses.
Self-reports are fast and easy but have questionable
Memory is the ability to store and recall
Elizabeth Loftus: False and Implanted memories
When Elizabeth was 14 years old, her mother drowned in their backyard pool. In her diary
Today, July 10, 1959, was the
Sleep and Dreams
Cycles of activity lasting about one day (Latin
circa = about and dies = day.)
Circadian rhythms occurring in an environment
free of time cues (like living in a cave for several
Definition of personality
Personality derives from the Latin word
persona, which translates to mask.
Personality is the consistent ways in which ones
behavior differs from others especially in social
Answers the questio
What is Psychology?
19 September 2013
Demonstrate that psychology is a VAST field
Highlight core questions that psychology
Discuss different types of psychologists, and
what they do
Research doesnt have to be
Research Designs for Studying
Three types of research design employed in
studying human development:
1) Cross-sectional studies compare groups of
individuals of different ages simultaneously.
Scientific Methods in Psychology
Evaluating Evidence and Thinking Critically
Psychology is a science. Scientific methods are
used by psychological scientists, and scientists in all
fields, to evaluate claims and theories.
Why Do We Need the Scie
Learning is any relatively permanent change in
behavior that occurs through experience.
Practical applications of this chapter:
- Anxiety Disorders e.g. phobias
- Food aversions
Disorders and Treatment
Abnormality, Therapy and Social Issues
We distinguish between normal and abnormal
The distinction between normal and weird
appears to be very clear.
Going more deeply into the issue, we
Although many species communicate by
exchanging signals, only human languages can
truly be called productive.
Humans can express new ideas through
Animal communication is comprised of prepackaged