When pangea split, what were the two halves called?
- Northern half consisting of north america and eurasia minus india called Laurasia
- Other bottom half was called gondwanaland
Why is continental drift important to the history of the human li
What is an adaptation?
- exquisitely constructed component that helps an organism survive and reproduce
What were the three postulates to Darwins theory of adaptation?
- the ability of a population to expand is infinite, but the ability of an en
Exam 2 Material
What are two reasons to study primates?
- Reasoning by homology The existence of morphological similarities between
related species means that studies of living primates often gives us more
insight into the behavior of our ancest
Natural Selection (Lecture 1)
Explanations in Science
- Monocausal: one cause leading up to the phenomenon we are observing
- Multivariate: many different variables have lead to the phenomenon observed
*Question can depend on the vantage point. Parents as
Artisa C. Counts
Introduction To Human Evolution
April 21 2016
In the novel entitled Your Inner Fish, author Neil Shubin shared with readers a riveting
account of a discovery made by he and his team. This discovery would have a massive impac
What skull shape would you see for each of the popular hominins?
- Pentagon House Homo erectus
- Pentagon Equal Homo heidelbergensis
- En bombe Homo neanderthalensis
- Rounded or Pentagon Parietal Bossing Homo sapiens
What are some features of a strepsirr
Artisa C. Counts
March 7 2016
Introduction to Human Evolution
My partner and I were extremely excited to receive the opportunity (and funds) to travel
to our site in the hopes of extracting some rewarding fossils that might give us additional
Intro to Anthropology
Homework: Cultural at Home Tradition
Every family has its own traditions, which are honored and respected the generations. One of the
traditions that we follow generation to generation are July 9, celebrating the love ones
Extinction2013Final Exam Review Sheet
Sixth Mass Extinction
o Holocene present
o 1.3% of mammal species extinct
o At least 20% in half of mammalian orders
o Ice sheets
o Longer and stepwise
o within Glacial periods: Hien
Intro to Human Evolution
Review of Your Inner Fish
In the book Your Inner Fish, Neil Shubin stated that sources like worms, flies, fish and
reptiles can help humans better understand how human bodies work. Just like his title, there are
Intro to Human evolution
Diet Transitions in Human History
Human and hominin diets have been changing for millions years. The composition of early
hominin is not constant, so they sought new foods and changed their diet in order to meet their
- Population a community of individuals where mates are usually found.
- Gene pool the sum of all alleles for a trait and their frequency within a population.
- follow the allele frequency from one generation to the next within a population.
- allopatric vs sympatric speciation
- allopatric populations separate = speciation
- sympatric speciation within a current range of species
- adaptive radiation rapid expansion and diversification of populations into new ecological niches.
- Begins with DNA replication somatic cells; 46-92, Germline 46 chromosomes 92
- Each chromosome is exactly replicated so that the two copies have exactly the same alleles.
- Cell division of somatic cells 1-2 hours
- 1 parent cell,
- Earliest tool maker
- earliest stone tools are 2.5 Ma from Ethiopia
- A. garhi in Ethiopia at 2.5 Ma
- Pre-date early Homo fossils by ~200 ka
- Gona, Ethiopia
- Earliest Homo fossils found at 2.4 Ma.
- What other group of hominins appears
- Jean Baptiste Lamarck
- inheritance of acquired characteristics.
- Lamarckian evolution an elephant with a short trunk stretches until its trunk gets longer.
These traits are then passed down. Lamarckian explanation incorrect.
- An O
- relative use principles of superposition and faunal succession
- use characteristics of the layers themselves
- compare fossils at site A to other fossils at site B
- numerical (a precise form of relative tim
- Incorporating bipedality
- Evolution of bipedality
- savanna hypothesis because of expanding savannas, human ancestors developed
bipedality to travel more efficiently.
- early human ancestors initially evolved bipedali
Food: Key Adaptations Result
- Distribution may vary in space and time
- Folivory Leaves (Low) High in fiber, high in protein, low in calories
- eg. Bamboo lemurs (Malagasy prosimian)
- adapted to secondary compound (cyanid
- Strepsirhines and Haplorhines
- Strepsirhines Lemurs & Lorises longer snouts, no enclosure behind the eye orbit,
incompletely fused lower jaw, tapetum lucidum (allows them to see well at night).
- Lemurs more
Lecture 5: 9/17/15 (Chapter 3)
The Unity of Life; Chromosomes & DNA
DNA is the molecule responsible for inheritance; present in all life on earth
-The genomes of several thousand species sequenced; all species have great genetic
How Similar Are
Evidence of Natural Selection
Natural Selection has been documented in the wild (under field conditions), as well
as in laboratory experiments.
-Under field conditions, selection pressures are shown to vary, and they may
vary quickly. Phenotypes may alter
-Georges Cuvier introduced the idea of extinction and proposed a variation of a
doctrine known as catastrophism.
Catastrophism: The view that the earths geological landscape is the result of violent
cataclysmic events. Cuvier promoted this view, especiall
other groups by their ability to mate with one another and produce fertile offspring
Reproductively isolated: Pertaining to groups of organisms that, mainly because of
genetic differences, are prevented from mating and producing offspring with
Lecture 3: 9/10/15 (Chapter 2)
-While Charles Darwin was developing his theory of natural selection, Alfred Russel
Wallace reached the same conclusion.
-Throughout the Middle Ages, one common thought was that all aspects of nature
Aristotles Scale of Nature
God, Angels, Humans, Animals, Plans Fire, Minerals, Rocks
It explained the natural superiority of humans (at the top of the chain), and
conferred political authority.
In the mid-18th century (mid 1700s), Carolus Lin
Lecture 2: 9/3/15 (Chapter 1)
The Discovery of Human Antiquity: How we came to Understand that Humans
It took a long time to establish the fact of human antiquity.
In the 18th and early 19th century, biologists and geologists
Lecture 1: 9/1/15 (Introduction)
What is Anthropology?
The study of humans.
In North America, split into four sub disciplines
-Social or cultural: studies produced many ethnographies that covered a
range of topics such as religion, ritual, myth, the use o
Parts of the skull: Frontal, parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Zygomatic, Maxilla, Mandible
Intermembral Index: Humans have an intermemral index between 68-70
Arm length/Leg length*100
100: limbs of equal length (terrestrial quadruped)