Exam 4 C hapter 9, 10, 11 Weather Forecasting Meteorological Organizations WMO World Meteorological organization (consists of about 175 nations) National Weather Service The NWS is a department within NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administ ration
Exam 3 Precipitation development Warm cloud process c louds that form at temperatures above freezing are called warm c louds. Precipitation production in a warm cloud occurs through collides and coalescence All cloud drops are liquid water Probability of
Meteorology Notes Computation of Relative Humidity
4:26 PM4:26 PM
Tuesday, October 9, 2007
Suppose it is snowing outside and the air is saturated. The air temperature and dew point are 28F, and the actual mixing ration is 3 g/kg. If this air is brought in
Heat transfer in the atmos phe re Conduction Transfer of heat from molecule to molecule within a substance. Convection the transfer of heat by the mass movement of a fluid Radiation transfer of energy by the rapid oscillations of electromagnetic fie lds i
Environmental lapse rate decreases more rapidly with height than the dry adiabatic rate the atmosphere is absolutely unstable. Air temp increases air capacity to hold water vapor increases. I f saturated stable air is lifted to a level where it becomes sa
1. Inferior image - sharp temperature gradient a. Objects look smaller from higher altitudes 2. Superior image - objects look bigger a. Images displaced towards warmer, less dense air 3. Halo- i ce crystals refracted a. Sundogs
1. Hurricanes, typhoons, cyclones 2. Average size 1,000-10,000 km 3. Development a. Tropical disturbance- cluster of thunderstorms with an organized circulation b. Tropical depression- winds 20-34 knots c. Tropical storms - winds 35-64 kno
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Fujita Scale: weak F0-F5 Strong Most frequently occur between 4-6 pm Funnel cloud: tornado that doesnt touch the ground Diameter 300-2000 feet a. Few meters to almost a mile Usually last for a few minutes and hav
1. Stages of Development a. Cumulus b. Growing c. Mature: downdraft d. Dissipating: downdraft spreads and cuts off updraft 2. Mechanisms of Development a. Air mass b. Orographic i. Mountains ii. Fronts 3. Severe thunderstorm a. diamete
1. Meteorological Organizations a. WMO: World Meteorology Organization b. National Weather Service 2. Methods of Forecasting a. Persistence: future weather will be the same as present weather b. Nowcasting: weather systems will move in t
1. Air mass: air within circulation cell that shows relatively high degree of homogeneity 2. Direction of flow over high and low pressure a. Northern Hemisphere: clockwise and outward with High pressure b. Counterclockwise and inward with
1. Warm cloud process: clouds form at temp above freezing are called warm clouds a. Occur through collision and coalescence b. All cloud drops are liquid water 2. Probability of a collision a. Larger drops have smaller surf
A. B. C. D. E. F. G.
Cloud formation: formed when air temp cools down to the dew point temp Mixing: when two air parcels become saturated when combined Fog formation: cloud on the ground Radiation fog: thin and spotty and burns of easily Adve
Moisture: water exists in three phases V apor, liquid, solid
A. B. I.
II. III. IV. V. V I.
Energy is absorbed and given off when changing phases Processes where heat absorbed by a substance and taken away from environment Melting: solid to
Controls of Temperature
1. Daytime warming a. Highest around 3-5 pm 2. Nighttime cooling a. Radiation cooling 3. Controls of temperature a. Latitude, land, water, ocean currents, elevation 4. Isotherms a. Lines connecting places that have the same te
A. Wiens Law: the hotter the object, the shorter the radiation B. Stefan-Boltzmann Law: amount of radiation energy proportional to temperature C. Short/Long wave radiation a. Absorbers: gets warmer b. Reflects: gets colder c. Rate depends o
Heat and Energy
1. Kinetic energy : motion 2. Temperature: measure of average speed of atoms and molecules a. Warm: less dense b. Cold: more dense 3. Absolute zero: no motion 4. Heat : energy being transferred a. Conduction b. Convection c. Radiation
1. Troposphere a. Surface to 11 km b. Contains all weather and air currents 2. Tropopause 3. Stratosphere a. 11-20 km b. Air temperature starts to increase with height 4. Mesosphere a. Air thin, low pressure, coldest 5. Thermosphere a. hot
History and Instrumentation
1. Timeline a. 15-1700: instruments developed b. 1800s: better/ more instruments with invention of telegraph c. 1920: concept of air masses and weather fronts formulated in Norway d. 1940: 3D view of the atmosphere e. 1950s