JENNIFER L. AAKER*
Although a considerable amount of research in personality psychology
has been done to conceptualize human personality, identify the "Big Five"
dimensions, and explore the meaning of each dimension, no parallel
research has been conducte
ROBIN HIGIE COULTER
SEEING THE VOICE
OF THE CUSTOMER:
Although improvements in traditional quantitative and qualitative
research techniques have enhanced our ahility to collect timely,
valid, and reli
M E TA P H O R - B A S E D A D V E R T I S I N G R E S E A R C H
Seeing the Voice of the Customer:
Metaphor-Based Advertising Research
Robin Higie Coulter
Reprinted from the JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH, Vol. 35, No. 4, July/August 1995
Zaltman and Coulter Seeing the Voice Of the Customer Metaphor-Based
Advertising Research 1995:
Summary: Explained 7 premises to improve advertising research and copy development and introduced
the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET)
Brand Management Class Notes
People will trust the brand name a lot more
If you spend one $ on advertising your returns are higher
A strong brand means it is safe to try a product
Symbolic function You love the way you look or feel when you use the brand
Perceptual Map for [Product]
Positioning for [product]
Perceptual Map for [Product]
Presentations need the same document elements as a paper,
including an introducti
Introduction to Marketing
Put a circle around your answer for each multiple choice answer. Each question is worlh 2
points, for a total of 120 points. One extra question can apply for extra credit.
l.To serue both buyers and sellers,?narketing seeks to
10/16 Marketing Notes (review and Chapter 8)
Highlights From Previous Class:
Price skimming marketer comes out with new product not a lot of competition,
Price penetration-when marketer reduces their price to gain a competitive
advantage problem with this
1) Coca-Cola vending machines are found all over the world. The newest machines have an
interactive screen that runs advertisements and allows users to obtain free photos of
themselves and ringtones after they have bought a drink. The reason for
1) The way to achieve customer satisfaction and value is to offer the lowest price.
Rationale: Marketers interested in customer value offer realistic prices and try to achieve
customer satisfaction and value by ensuring customer
The New Beetle
Case Assignment Questions
1. What is the meaning of the VW brand?
The VW brand was always most known for their affordability. The brand appealed
to consumers emotionally and rationally because it offered prime German
Can Honest Tea Say No to Coke, its Biggest Investor
What was the major advantage to Honest Tea for selling a minority interest in its
business to Coca Cola ?
What was the major advantage to Coca Cola for acquiring a minority stake in Honest
Anheuser Busch Merger Deal Clears Major Anti-Trust Hurdle
What was the basis for the Obama Administrations arguments for blocking the
Anheuser-Busch InBev deal to buy Grupo Modelo ?
What is the likely outcome of the deal struck between the Justice Departm
Food Product Containers Have Shrunk
Which feature of a product do consumers show greater sensitivity to: the quantity of product
in the package or the price of the product ?
Describe several packaging techniques (or tricks) that companies are using to dow
Red Enhances Mens Attraction to Women, Psychological Study
Describe the studies that demonstrated that men were more attracted to women in red ?
Besides attractiveness, were any other responses influenced by the color red ?
What effect did the col
Those Aqua Velva Folks Knew Something
What was the secret behind the success of Davidoff Cool Water that launched the
connection to the color blue ?
What are some of connections that consumers make to the color blue ?
This is a tough one, but if you can a
Broadway Makes the Most of Premium Pricing ?
What is dynamic pricing ?
2. Under what circumstances will dynamic pricing work ?
Under what circumstances, would you think, that dynamic pricing wouldnt
work ? Why ?
Academic Dream Team Helped Obamas Effort
Describe how both warmth (liking) and competence (authority) as influence factors
helped differentiate Obama from Romney in the last election.
What were some examples of the commitment factor used by the Obama team
The Overwhelmed Shopper
What does the author mean by the statement: choice(s) enabled me to do better, but
feel worse ?
What effect do lots of choices of goods have on those people referred to as maximizers
compared to those called satisficers ?
Watching Behavior Before Writing the Rules
What changes were made in tax collection in England that led to an increase in the
number of people who paid their taxes on time ?
What does the author mean by randomized trials?
How were randomized trials applie
Why New Products Fail
1. Whats the single, biggest reason, the authors feel, that contributes to new
products failing in the marketplace ?
2. What was the main reason for the failure of each:
MS Windows Vista
Coca Cola C2
Cake Mixes, Taken Seriously
What change in target audience is Duncan Hines trying to achieve with their new
promotional campaign ?
Traditionally, the selling point for cake mixes was their simplicity, providing something
special that busy moms could do fo
Luggage on Wheels Invention
1. Describe the invention that Bernard Sadow patented ?
2. What was Bob Plaths improvement on Sadows invention ?
3. What other changes (improvements) have been made since these two initial
inventions for luggage ?
How to Brand a Next Generation Product
1. How do consumers interpret products that are named sequentially compared to
those given an entirely different name?
2. What was the lesson learned concerning brand naming for the Intel Itanium
3. The de
Is Coke the Same as It Was 127 Years Ago ? Maybe
1. What is one business reason for companies claiming that their product formulation
has not changed ?
2. What are some changes made over the years to Twinkies, KFC chicken, Coca
Cola , and Pepsi Cola ?
At Stores, Making 5 for $5 a Bigger Draw than 1 for $
1. What changes in consumer behavior are businesses trying to accomplish by using
multiple- products-for-a-given-price tactic ?
2. What are some reasons why businesses have moved to this multiple-produ
Real Life Lessons in the Delicate Art of Price Setting
What did the CEO of headsets.com learn regarding the importance of prices ?
What was the lesson on pricing learned by the founder of Better Batter Gluten-Free
What was the pricing strategy ado
Subconscious Encounters: How Brand Exposure Affects Your
What is the effect of repeatedly exposing someone to a brand ?
Is it required that you have to be aware of a brand in order to be influenced by it ?
What happened to purchase interest when s
Product Placement Grows in Music Videos
1. What are 2 trends contributing to the popularity of product placements in
2. What is MTVs policy with respect to product placements in videos ?
3. Whats the advantage to a company promoting its product i