These theories focus on what motivates people
This principle suggests that when people can't meet a need at a particular level, they try to meet a need
at a lower level.
This theory suggests that motivatio
A task force and a special project team are two examples of this type of team.
A cross-functional team is composed of employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from
different areas of expertise.
In this type of team, empl
Developed by Blake and Mouton, this theory classifies leaders as country club managers, team
managers, middle-of-the-road managers, authority-compliance managers, or impoverished managers
based on their concern for production or concern fo
WHat approach do geographers use to investigate important issues?
Climate, topography, erosion, animal life, human influences
Process of finding a geological solution:
Questions from Observation
Collect data to test predi
Large, rapidly rotating low pressure system, with strong winds and heavy rains
Rising air doors to dew point vapor consents and releases heat which is more fuel
Warm humid air rises from ocean
Dry sinking air forms eye
They can be as tal
Properties of water
2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom
Positive side charged by H and negative side charged by O
Hydrogen bond: attraction between polarity of two adjacent molecules,
Strong surface tension (forms drops) from hydrogen bond
How much energy is transferred from sun to Earth?
Shortwave energy coming from sun is called insolation
Solar constant: average amount of insolation
How does insolation change every year?
Earth has a near perfect orbit
January Earth is closest to
Historical Impacts of Global circulation
Trade winds allow westward travel in the tropics
Westerlies provided a trip back to europe but primarily in the mid latitudes.
Mason Dixon Line- line of culture and climate
Trade winds from east to west allows
1. Sea breeze circulation
a. Day: Sea Breeze
Water is cooler than land: warmer (warms up 4 times faster than water)
So, Land has low pressure, water has high pressure, so expect to receive
winds off of the water
b. Night: Land Breeze
Why doesnt wind go up?
Hydrostatic balance- vertical pgf counteracted by gravity
Air that descends from above
Colder and heavier
Diverging at surface (divergence)
Air that rises
Hotter and lighter
Wind = Pressure gradient force + friction + Coriolis
Apparent deflection of wind due to Earths rotation
Equator must cover more distance in same amount of time (e.g. 1 hr)
Poles spine 360*
As air moves toward poles. It has eastward mo
Sunrise midday Tropics:
High energy, lots of evaporation
High energy, instead of evaporation energy in pressure.
All matter contains energy.
Ability to do work
At atomic level: vibration, rotation, and
Layers with different temps and compositions and pressures
Layers are separated by pauses
Most gas particles at in the troposphere because of gravity
Most shortwave (high energy) EMR is intercepted in the thermosphere
Much UV is intercepted in the
Mean winter precipitation
Orographic effects proximity to ocean
Continental locations (blocked from moisture source)
Lake effect snow downwind of lakes
Precipitation decreases north and inland. Cold air forms clouds not capable of much
WHat is a tornado?
Rapidly rotating vortex of air extending from a cumulonimbus cloud to the ground
Extreme: Miles wide, travel for 50+ miles, 200 mph, multiple hours
Typical: Hundreds of meters wide, less than a mile, <100 mph, a few minutes
Our atmosphere is made up of gases (N, O, CO2, H)
- INsolation varies temporally (insolation over the year) and spatially (latitude insolation is
more or less).
- Differences in temperature
How do we make a hot air balloon rise?
- Heating, expansi
Sensible heat: heat transferred from more energetic atoms and molecules in a warmer object to
a cooler one.
Hot cup: you feel [sense] heat
Heat transferred to your hand via conduction
Cold cup: you feel cold
Heat from your hand transfers to the cup vi
Latitude and Longitude
Earth is not round
Actually an oblate spheroid
Flattened at the poles
Unique shape is called a geoid
Conveying Location with latitude and Longitude:
COncentric circles, parallel to each other; each re
Viewing our atmosphere
Layers with different temperatures, pressures and composition characteristics
Each sphere wraps Earth successively in a spherical shape
Spheres are separated by pauses
Gas molecules more abundant near surface (gravity)
Geology Final Exam Notes 4/22/15
Cows have the biggest impact
Flexigetation person who eats less meat, particulary beef
Dust Bowl 1930s first big environmental crisis in American history
Organic foods, Conventional
January 18, 2015
Part 1: Earth Clock
Go to this website:
2) Compute the answers to these questions below (Hint: note buttons at top for: now, day, week,
7.1 billion People in the world. 12- 14 billion
McKinney born 3 Billion
Gyres - ocean currents
270 Parts per million CO2 prehistoric times. Now it is 400 PPM.
Anthropocene- the human epic. A period in earth history
January 12, 2015
1. According to many experts, what is our most challenging environmental problem?
World population growth.
2. What percent of energy in US comes from fossil fuels?
Test 1 Review
Indicators of human impact in atmosphere
400ppm CO2 in the atmosphere
Spatial vs. Historical
Anthropocene new geologic age Humans become greatest force
Why dont people do something?
Tragedy of the Commons
Green Revolution (1960s)-wanted to increase productivity, industrial techniques/farming
Pesticides-99% of spray ends up in the water supp
April 7, 2015
Polluted water kills more people than any other cause of death.
We overwhelm the purification of wat
Geology Notes- 11/24
The proof-evident from observations of
o Increases of global average air and ocean temperatures
o Widespread melting of snow and ice
o Rising global average sea level
Greenhouse gases in atmosphere (from greatest amount to least amo
Geology Notes- 11/17
Air pollution can come from natural or human sources
o Natural causes- volcanoes, forest fires, dust storms (short-term impact)
o Human-caused- car exhausts, power plants, factories, agriculture, smoking, etc (long-term
Geology Notes- 11/12
Water pollution problems can be characterized by the areas that become polluted
o Rivers and streams
o Lakes & wetland
o Ground Water
o Marine Waters & estuaries
Lakes are more easily polluted than rivers for three reasons
o Slow ci
Geology Notes- 11/19
Two of the most immediate global environmental threats humans face are:
o Climate change caused by greenhouse gases
o Abnormally high incidences of ultraviolet radiation on the Earths surface from destruction of
the ozone layer