Riparian Areas / Wetlands: Page 1 of 9
What is a riparian area?
Numerous definitions offered in the literature, by agencies (federal & state) and by
Literal translation from the Latin means bank.
Refers to the land and life on
Snow Hydrology: Page 1 of 8
Reasons Snow is Important
Snowpacks are major sources of freshwater for many regions of the world
Often the primary source of freshwater in arid and dry lands.
o In California 80% of all surface water is snowmelt
Karst Hydrology: Page 1 of 8
What is Karst?
The word karst refers to a unique type of terrain
with distinctive landforms, usually formed on
carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite, marble) or
evaporites (gypsum, anhydrite, rock salt), where
Water Law and BMPs: Page 1 of 10
Water Law & BMPs
The fight over who gets the water.
And who keeps it clean.
Where Our Water Laws Came From
Before European settlement of this country, no one owned the water.
The water, the land, the air everything belonge
Geomorphology is the study of surface forms of the earth, created by wind, water, glaciers, mass
wasting, tectonics and volcanoes.
Hydro-geomorphology is a convergence of hydrology and geomorphology.
It is the study of:
Habitat Function: Page 1 of 4
What is the Habitat Function?
Provision of habitat for flora and fauna (a biological and physical element).
Focus on Stream Habitat - terrestrial covered by wildlife & forestry classes
Aquatic Community Terms
Chemical Reactions Function: Page 1 of 10
Chemical Reactions Function
Chemical Reactions Function
The provision of sites and pathways for chemical reactions to occur within a forested watershed.
The adjustment of chemistry by a forested watershed
Measuring Stream Discharge: Page 1 of 6
Measuring Stream Discharge
Objective: measure velocity at know cross-sectional area to determine Q
How to measure a cross-section
Pick a section of the stream that has a fairly uniform flow and f
Discharge Function: Page 1 of 7
Discharge Function of a Watershed
Release of water as streamflow. The shedding part of watershed.
The ultimate fate of surface waters within a watershed is to be output.
The flow of surface waters is a major determinant of
Watershed and Function Intro: Page 1 of 7
Watershed and Function Introduction
Features of a Stream in a Forested Watershed
Stream channel: open conduit that contains moving water
(always or sometimes). Can be a natural ch
Runoff, subsurface water, groundwater: Page 1 of 4
Runoff and Subsurface Water
What is Runoff?
Runoff is a hydrologic engineering term for waters flow over the ground surface
Also termed surface runoff or overland flow in the literature.
Our definition: t
Infiltration: Page 1 of 3
Definition: a process of water entering the soil surface
Percolation refers to advance of water through the soil
Infiltration capacity: maximum rate water can enter the soil (in cm/hr)
Infiltration rate: actual rate
Evapotranspiration: Page 1 of 5
Evaporation: net loss of water from a surface resulting from a change in the state of water from
liquid to vapor
Evaporation is the vaporization of water. Controlled by solar radiation and vapor pressure
Interception: Page 1 of 3
Definition: process in which precipitation comes in contact vegetal material above the ground
- an interception in the downward movement of precipitation
How? Water forms a film on the plant and surface tensi
Watersheds & Water Units: Page 1 of 5
Watersheds and Their Boundaries
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUC)
Visit the National Hydrologic Database http:/nhd.usgs.gov
Go to the NHD Viewer, Zoom out to see entire US
Watch the HUC Video for directions http:/www.youtub
Water Supply & Water Use: Page 1 of 7
Water Supply and Water Use
We live on a wet _. The only _ plant in our solar system.
The only plant where water occurs in _, _ and _ forms at common
One cubic mile is over one trillion gallons.
Culverts, Bridges & Dams: Page 1 of 7
Culverts, Bridges & Dams
A flowing stream has always presented an obstacle for human transportation.
Unlike other obstacles to transportation (like mountains), streams and rivers:
Flood (peak flows)
Have forces (pre
Foundations of North American Conservation
America has led the world in how we approach conservation (as of recently)
People gave little thought to conservation up until and through the 1700s
o 1661: William Penn came up with the 1/6
I. Forests of North America
1. Bottom Land Hardwood Forests:
a. Contains Cypress, Red Gum, Oak, and Hickory trees (known for being
b. Spreads throughout the Mississippi Basin and Lower East Coast (Florida,
Georgia, and the Lower Carolinas)