Study PointsThirdExamSocialPsychology Spring 2012Houston
Adversarial &Inquisitorial systems
o Rationales forusing the Adversarial System
TheCommon Law inAngloAmerican legalsystems
Criminal Law &CivilLaw
Evidence &Burden ofProof
Issues ofLaw &Issues
Social (Part 5)
A person is looking up at a tall building on the street, others passing by also look up.
A couple of kids tease a classmate, and other kids join in.
One prison guard starts to be more stern, the other ones follow suit.
What is Person P
Social (Part 6)
A person who speaks slowly is also slow-witted
A sports hero like O.J. could not possibly stab two people to death
A Catholic priest could never molest little boys.
What is Attribution?
Is the mental process of i
Social (Part 7)
Two other examples:
A person of color is viewed as lazy instead of considering discrimination/glass
ceiling/policies keeping people of color out.
A person is late to work because s/he is irresponsible vs. there being an actual traffic or
Social (Part 8)
Or, when you break a glass it is because the glass was wet and slippery (external cause),
however, when another breaks a glass, it is because s/he is clumsy (internal cause).
For the Stanford Prison Experiment, one prisoner who obeyed a
Social (Part 9)
As you see, we can either change our behavior or our cognition so that they are aligned
and the tension is reduced.
What is Prejudice?
Is a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group.
It is a behavior
Social (Part 10)
Out-Group Homogeneity Effect
If you dont identify as Asian, then Asian is your out-group, as a result, All Asians look
alike from outsiders, but many Asians can tell the difference between Koreans, Japanese,
Chinese, and Vietna
Social (Part 11)
People want to have consistent attitudes and behaviors.when they are not they
experience dissonance (unpleasant tension).
Usually they will change their attitude.
16PF A test of personality traits device by Raymond Cattell that radically measures all 16 factors
that make up personality
actor-observer effect First proposed by social psychologists, Jones and Nisbett in 1971. They
hypothesized that "actors tend to att
bystander apathy The fact that people witnessing an emergency often do not help.
bystander effect The fact that people in trouble are far more likely to be helped if they are seen
by only one person rather than by a group.
Cattell, Raymond A psychologist
emotional stability (neuroticism) Dimension of the Big Five: A personality characteristic of
being more calm, poised, comfortable with themselves, composed, stable, patient, and
empathy Caring about the emotions of others.
g and s The letter "G" is an abbreviation for "general" intelligence. The letter "S" is an
abbreviation for "specific" factors (specialized kinds of intelligence).
Gardner, Howard An American developmental psychologist from Harvard University. The
Latan, Bibb A psychologist, along with John Darley, who conducted series of controlled studies
to discover under what conditions people would help a stranger.
Likert scale A common method of obtaining self-reports which consists of a series of items that
mentally retarded People whose IQ scores are significantly below average have been
traditionally termed by this phrase. The current definition requires scores more than two standard
deviations below average. About 3% of people fall within this criterion.
multi-factor theory of intelligence The idea that intelligence is made up of many specific
intellectual abilities in various areas of study.
Myers-Briggs type indicator A personality test that divides people into 16 categories based on
their answers to it
psychometrics The field of psychology that studies and creates test for assessing people's
psychopathy A personality trait in which a person has a lack of conscience, a lack of remorse
for harming others, and a lack of caring about the fe
situational or external attribution A person's believes that someone's behavior is caused primarily
by factors within the "situation".
situationism The psychological theory proposed by Walter Mischel that says that behavior is
greatly influenced by the va
Social (Part 4)
While blatant prejudice is on the wane, subtler forms are still out there
They experience a few different things
Where does it come from?
We have a need to categorize stuff
Social (Part 3)
Started a big debate about ethics
Most participants were happy to learn this scary thing about themselves
I have a heart condition -> no effect!
Legitimate authority was the key
1. WhatareATTRIBUTIONS &why dotheymatter?
1.1. Attributions areJUDGMENTS OFCAUSATION .
1.2. WHY did something happen? W HAT caused ittohappen?
2. AG ENERALM ODELoftheAttribution Process Jones&DavissTHEORYOF
2.1. C OR
The TAGESOFDECISIONMAKING &itsDynamic Quality.
1.1. Judgment &Decision Making asaProcessthat occurs across aperiod oftime,rather than an
Event that occurs atadiscrete moment.
1.2. TheCognitive Miser&Decision Making THEA D
Bay of Pigs
1. Background: Shared Attitudes, Shared Cognitions.
1.1. What were the relevant consensus positions at this time?
1.2. Cuba & the United States.
1.2.1. The Cuban War of Independence (the Spanish-American War).
1.2.2. Cuba from 1900-1950.
Introduction to Groupthink
1. Groupthink -> A faulty group decision making process, involving fixating on a
chosen course of action early in the process, & then resisting any efforts to change that
course, even in the face of new information.
Study PointsFirstExamSocialPsychology Spring 2012Houston
o ItsPreferred methodology.
o ItsPreferred Unit ofAnalysis.
TheProblem ofInduction inScience