Epidemiology (Part 1)
Distribution, frequency and determinants of health problems and diseases in human
Aim: obtain, interpret and use health information and reduce disease burden
Practical interventions and programmes
Epidemiology (Part 9)
Effectiveness; efficiency; quality; access; availability of services to treat, control or
7 Uses of Epidemiology
5. Completing the clinical picture
Identification and diagnostic process to establish that a conditio
Epidemiology (Part 8)
Terms to know
Infective diseases are those which the pathogen or agent has the capability to enter,
survive, and multiply in the host
Virulence the extent of pathogenicity or strength of different organisms
the ability of the pat
Epidemiology (Part 7)
He provided statistical evidence for many theories on disease, and also refuted many
widespread ideas on them.
Dr. John Snow is famous for his investigations into the causes of the 19th Century
He began wi
Epidemiology (Part 6)
Epidemiologists may draw on a number of other scientific disciplines such as biology in
understanding disease processes and social science disciplines including sociology and
philosophy in order to better understand proximate and di
Epidemiology (Part 5)
Maternal mortality rate (MMR)
Child mortality rate (CMR)
Rates and how to calculate?
Coverage rates of e.g. FP,EPI,(what denominator to use)
Drop out rates e.g.EPI,FP,TB,ARV, etc.
Calculate target popu
Epidemiology (Part 4)
Possible/suspect case:A case with fewer of typical clinical features
Why use rates?
To make comparison
To calculate the number of expected cases in a specific time frame/period
A measure that can be used to help de
Epidemiology (Part 3)
Use rates: incidence rates p.14
=new cases in specified period of time x factor
total population at risk
=existing cases at the specified point of time x factor
Epidemiology (Part 2)
What facilitated the change?
Concepts and their application
Incidence: the number of new cases, episodes or events occurring over a defined period
of time, commonly one year.
Epidemiology (Part 10)
Time accounts for incubation periods, life expectancy of the host or pathogen, duration of
the course of illness or condition.
The Epidemiology Triangle
The mission of the epidemiologist is to break one of the legs of the triangle,