Gender (Part 1)
Until about 6 weeks after conception, female and male embryos look
identical; they differ only in chromosomes.
In about the third month of conception, the fetuss hormones encourage
further sex differentiation.
Gender (Part 9)
Session 3, Option 1.
Understanding sexuality as historically and socially constructed
Read Weeks, J., The invention of sexuality (2003) (30 mins)
o What does the title mean, in relation to the idea that sexu
Gender (Part 8)
o Is this model of inducements and punishments still relevant and
appropriate in the 21st century? If not, can it be rewritten?
o Is it relevant in and appropriate to your cultural setting? If not, can it
o Can this table be
Gender (Part 7)
o Macquarie (1981): The definition or recognising of sexual matters
o I am suggesting that what we define as sexuality is an historical
construction, which brings together a host of different biological and
mental possibilities, and cultu
Gender (Part 6)
o Male or female
o Masculine or feminine
Binary challenged by intersex, transgender or third gender people
Temptation to make an absolute distinction between sex and gender:
o Nature vs nurture or essentialism vs social constructionism
Gender (Part 5)
o Heterosexuality is a natural outcome of this sex
difference due to the drive to reproduce the species
Key assumption driving biological determinism:
o The primary function and goal of all human
sexual activity is the reproduction of the
Gender (Part 4)
They became confused when the child was cross-dressed indicating a
reliance on clothing cues.
Cont. research review
Middle-class children are more flexible than lower-class children in their
ideas about gender.
Gender (Part 3)
o Children use gender as a cognitive organizing principle (schema).
Children organize information about themselves and the rest of the
world according to definitions of gender found in the culture.
Cont. Gender schema theory
A major step
Gender (Part 2)
o No clear gender differences emerge.
o Research suggests that men and women in US/Canada prefer a boy as
o Parents view their female infants as weak
Gender comparisons during infancy
Boys are more susceptible to SI
Gender (Part 10)
Females contributions to gene pool was improved by securing
resources for offspring
Social Theories of Gender
Social role theory - gender differences result from the contrasting roles of
women and men
In most cultures, women have less