Botany: the Study of Plants
What is a plant?
Lives on land
Doesnt move under its own power
Produces food and energy from sunlight (photosynthesis)
Excludes algae (live in water and often unicellular) and fungi (no photosynthes
The haploid meiotic products are released as spores, which are dispersed to new locations
and germinate into gametophytes.
The haploid gametophytes are quite small, a few millimeters in diameter. They contain
structures that produce sperm and eg
2. increasing the diploid phase of the life cycle, and decreasing the haploid phase.
Diploid gives a backup copy of each gene, as a defense against random mutations.
Allows a larger, more complex body.
3. Protection and dispersal of reproducti
Dicots have two cotyledon leaves. Before the seed in fully formed, the dicot
cotyledons absorb the nutrients from the endosperm, so dicot seeds use food
stored in the cotyledons, not the endosperm.
Seeds need proper conditions
The embryo develops into a seed.
Seeds are multicellular, fully formed, miniature plants that are in a dormant state.
This allows them to survive winter or other bad conditions, and then to quickly
turn into functioning plants
Most of the time it is advantageous to have cross-pollination: the pollen from one
plant fertilizes the ovules of another plant. This increases the genetic diversity of
the offspring, which means more will survive under varying conditions.
Taproots are often enlarged for food storage: things like carrots and turnips.
Flowers are the defining characteristic of the angiosperms (the flowering plants). They
are the reproductive organs of the plant.
Flowers consist of 4 whorls
Stems hold the leaves and flowers up in the air: off the ground, above things that
might block the sun, away from predators and decay organisms. Stems contain
the plumbing that carries nutrients to different parts of the plant.
Flowers are the
Photosynthesis uses energy from light to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into sugar.
Occurs in the chloroplasts, which were once free-living bacteria that got swallowed up by
In other parts of the plant, chloroplasts get used for st
2. Cuticle: a waxy coat that covers plants and keeps them from drying out
Chloroplasts & Chlorophyll
Six Characteristics of Plants
3. Cell Walls: supports & protects plant cells
4. Multicellular: made up of many cells
5. Producer: Makes their