Spatial Ability (M&J) Men have greater spatial ability except in spatial location memory and
perceptual speed. Spatial ability differences however, are malleable through elimination of
stereotype threat or training.
Math Ability (M&J) Men scored better. O
Perceivers ability to activate stereotype Higher if traditional, recent stereotype use, gender
schematic, distracted/exhausted, and target fits prototype/is a numerical minority.
Targets likelihood of self-schematic Gender schematic, numerical minority, t
Parental Investment Intersexual and intrasexual competition. DIfferent adaptive pressures,
women must invest more.
Evolutionary visuospatial explanation No discrepancy. Man the Hunter, but also Woman the
Gatherer, and not many resources used for this skil
Nonverbal Communication Women smile and gaze more, they are also better at decoding others
emotions and conveying their own. Men are taught to be "stoic" and unemotional.
Expectation States Theory Social interactions include different expectations about s
Memory Found to occur in children as young as 2.5 years old (fill-in-the-blank memory), we
remember stereotype consistent material better.
Stereotype Threat The idea that when gender is made salient, women's performance is lower
(especially in math). Show
Mate Selection Men and women desire similar characteristics, but men put more stress on
physical appearance and women put more stress on financial resources. (Gay men also care
about physical appearance, lesbians not concerned with resources)
Intensity of emotion Women expect/report more, not shown in online beeper studies.
Expression of emotion Women rated more except for in anger.
Basis of emotion Men use internal physiology as explanation, and women use social
OCEAN Big Five. N
Early Gender History Focused on intelligence and gender. All male samples were common.
Masculinity/femininity Measures Unipolar and Bi-polar. Developed 1940s-80s.
Gender as a Variable Cannot test just gender in a causation study. There are many confoundin
Differential Modeling Print Media (sexualization of females), division of labor, stereotypic
characters in TV/media, 80% of toys can be sex-typed.
Cognitive Developmental Children construct hypotheses about world, through understanding
their gender they g
Access Discrimination Discrimination that occurs (typically vs. women) on hiring, or offering
lower jobs at start. Resume studies.
Wage Gap Women make about 74% of what men do. White/Asian gap is biggest. Women
expect less and "women's jobs" pay less. Dep