and Units of
1.1 Chemistry is important
Matter anything that takes up space and
Chemistry the science that deals with
matter (the structure and properties of
matter and the transformations from one
Win Dr. Pottss Candy!
1. What are the 3 states of matter?
2. At low temperatures, most compounds exist in the _state.
3. What are the 2 types of mixtures?
4. What do we use to organize the elements?
5. The smallest particle of an element that retains the
Reactions between ions and
molecules in aqueous solutions
4.1 Solution Terminology
Solution homogeneous mixture in which
the two or more components mix freely
present in the
Solvent the component p
Solute is any substance d
Chemistry Chapter 4: Periodic Table
Effective Nuclear Charge
a. The actual magnitude of positive charge that is experienced by an electron
1. Where an electron is partially shielded from the positive charge of
Chemistry chapter 9
Strong electrolyte: dissociates completely
Strong Bases: Group I hydroxides and group II if soluble
Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO3, H2SO4, HSO4Weak electrolyte: compound that produces ions upon dissolving but exists in solutio
Chemistry Chapter 3: Quantum Theory and the Electric
3.1 Energy and Energy Changes
Terms to Know: Energy, Kinetic Energy, Thermal energy, Potential energy, Chemical
Energy and Electrostatic Energy
1. Notes: Law of Conservation of Energy
Chemistry Chapter 1
1.1 The Scientific Method
1 Gathering of data via observations and experiments
2 Identify patterns or trends
3 Summarize findings into a law (concise verbal or mathematical statement of a reliable
relationship btw phenomena)
Significant Figures: the number of digits in a number that are known with absolute
All digits written down are significant except two types:
1. Zeros that come before the first nonzero digit are not significant.
2. Zeros that
8.1 Electron transfer leads to the
formation of ionic compounds
Ionic compounds form when metals and
The attraction between positive and negative ions
is called an ionic bond
But why do
Characteristics of Atoms
contain positive nuclei
have various properties
attract one another
combine to form molecules
How do we study atoms?
Water-soluble ionic compounds 1. All compounds of alkali metals are soluble. 2. All salts containing NH4+, NO3-, ClO4-, ClO3- and C2H3O2- are soluble. 3. All chlorides, bromides and iodides (Cl-, Br- and I-) are soluble except when combined with Ag+, Hg22
Properties of Gases
10.1 Familiar properties of gases
1. Gases are compressible.
2. Gases exert a pressure.
3. Pressure of the gases depends on how much gas
4. Gases fill completely any container into which
they are placed.
and chemical reactions
2.1 Daltons Atomic Theory
Concept of atoms - nearly 2500 years ago.
Greek Philosophical reasoning: atomos
Modern atomic theory was developed from
and the Properties of
Liquids and Solids
Forces of attraction between molecules
Directly dependent on the distance between
As the distance between molecules increases,
Chemical Bonding and
9.1 Molecules are 3D
Shapes and Bonds
Imagine a molecule where
the central atom is the Earth.
Equatorial bonds bonds
Chemistry Chapter 2: Atoms and the Periodic Table
2.3: Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes
a. Chemically react identically have different mass numbers
b. All are named with element name and mass number
i. Hydrogen is different