Phil102Chapter6.1
Chapter6.1
Ifoftenanimplication,ex.Ifitrainsthenyouwillgetwet,rainingimpliesgetting
wet(rainisaconditionforgettingwet)
A B
Sufficientconditionisalwaysfirst(theA)andBisthenecessarycondition(ifnot
BcanthaveAsinceBisanecessarycondition)
E
Friday Argument #4 Euthyphros Dilemma
Divine Command Theory df. = Gods commanding us to X is a necessary and sufficient condition of our having a
moral obligation to X.
Key Passage: Is what is pious pious because the gods approve it, or do they approve it
Justification of the Truth Table for Conditionals
Line
1
2
3
4
p
T
T
F
F
q
T
F
T
F
pq
Recall the promissory note concerning the third and forth lines of the truth table
for conditionals.
If we take conditionals with false antecedents to be false, then we
Hausman Chapter 4.1-3
The Problem of Circularity:
Are we not using normal rules of inference to conclude that those self-same rules are good
ones?
Semantics = Logic from the outside. Now sentences are not just positions in an
argumentative game, but items
Friday Argument #1
Key Passage: a man cannot inquire either about what he knows or about what he does not
know for he cannot inquire about what he knows, because he knows it, and in that case is in no
need of inquiry; nor again can he inquire about what h
Hausman Chapter 2.9-10
Disjunction
Two sentences connected by the word or form a compound sentence called a disjunction, and
the two sentences so connected are called disjuncts of the disjunction. We use v to symbolize
the or
Two Senses of Or
Exclusive Se
Practice Logic Test #1
Short Answer
1. Give the precise definition of a proposition.
2. If it is possible for the premises of an argument to be true and the conclusion false, an
argument is what?
3. Give the precise definition of soundness.
4. How do indu
Test 4 Logic
First order hypothetical
If A and B, then Z. Similar to if not the same as premise of inference.
Second order hypothetical
States a condition under which another hypothetical is true. If C, then if A and B, then Z. Similar
to if not the same
Test 2 Logic
Fill in the following table for statement classification
Tautology
Contradiction
Contingent
Tautology- All true
Contradiction- All false
Contingent- Some true, some false
Fill in the following table for relation classification
Same truth valu
Notes: Logic
Euphemisms
A phrase or an expression that seeks to suppress the disagreeable aspects of a term or a
concept
Ex. saying put down instead of saying kill
Dysphemisms
A phrase or an expression that seeks to highlight or exaggerate the disagree
Ostensive
Pointing to, or demonstrating the thing being defined
Definition by example
Provide specific examples of what a word refers to
Definition by Synonym
Provide a synonym
Analytical definition
Specifying the features that a thing possess
Fallacy of
Test 3
Categorical propositions
Assert or deny relationships between terms or classes
A
All S are P
Universal affirmative
E
No S are P
-Universal negative
I
Some S are P
-Particular affirmative
O
Some S are not P - particular negative
Existential import
T
Logic Test 1
Give the precise definition of an argument. (Your answer should have two parts)
An argument is a series of propositions. These propositions include premises and a conclusion.
Premises are provided as justification for the conclusion.
The conc
Fallacy of composition
Someone claims because something is true of parts it is true of the whole. Ex: Look at how cold
this winter is- global warming isn't real.
Fallacy of division
When one makes claims from what is true about the whole and says they are
Vacuity
Occurs when an argument makes no progress beyond its own assumptions, includes circular
arguments, begging the question, and self-sealing arguments,
Begging the question
One of the premises are in the conclusion. An argument begs the question if a
Hausman Chapter 3.5-7
Truth-Tables and Validity: Testing for Validity (or better invalidity)
A truth table presents every possible combination of truth values that the components of an argument may
have.
So, if no line exists on which the premises are tru
Hausman Chapter 3.2-4
Logical Form (this is the first move in our transition from semantics to syntax)
Sentence forms are sentences containing only sentence variables and our truth-functional operators. They are
like formulas in mathematics with p, q, r,
Friday Argument
Physicalism df.= Everything that is is material/matter. The thesis that there is no stuff in the universe except what
physics says there is.
Jacksons Thought Experiment: Mary is confined to a black-and-white room, is educated through black
UNIT 1 TEST -PRACTICE
Short Answer
1. Give the precise definition of an argument. (Hint: Your answer should have two parts).
2. True or False? The conclusion of an argument is a proposition.
3. Give the precise definition of deductive validity.
4. Give th
LOGIC 102.04 |Spring 2015 | MWF 12:10-1:00 | Furman Hall 325
[email protected] | Office Hours: TBA
Course Description
This course is designed to make you a better reasoner, regardless of your
personal, professional, or academic aspirations. Material c
TESTISH
I _, pledge on my honor that I have neither given nor received
unauthorized aid on this examination.
* Assuming Existential Import*
Module 1: Determining Immediate Inferences
The Square of Opposition
1. Draw the Traditional Square of Opposition. G
SCHMEST
I _, pledge on my honor that I have neither given nor
received unauthorized aid on this examination.
NO PARTIAL CREDIT.
1. Fill in the following table for statement classification:
3
Truth-values of main operator
Statement Classification
1.
Tautol
LOGIC 102
Luke Semrau
Day 1: Course Introduction
AGENDA
Today we will:
Meet each other.
Answer two questions:
1. Whats the courses purpose?
2. How do I succeed in this course?
Meet the syllabus.
Survey the argument landscape.
About Me
I have lived so
LOGIC 102
Formal: Translations with Conjunction
Argument Analysis: Cultural Relativism
Agenda
1. Brief Review
1. Frankena
2. Central concepts
2. Translation with and
3. Rachels: The Challenge of Cultural Relativism
Frankena
In each of these arguments Socr
LOGIC 102
REVIEW
AGENDA
1. Housekeeping
1. Test Tomorrow! Goal: 90% average or better!
2. Direct/Indirect tests
3. Dont forget the other assignment too.
2. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
3. Review practice test
4. Complex Translations
5. Review Infor
LOGIC 102
Truth Values & Logical Form
AGENDA
For Today:
1. Test!
2. Computing Truth Values
3. Logical Form
Computing Truth
Values
A and B are true, C and D are false. Q and R
are unknown. What can we say about:
1. (A C) [(D Q) (~A R)]
2. A v ~A
3. (R ~R)