The Middle East
o What is The Middle East?
Remember that it is sometimes (especially in Britain) called the Near East.
These are strategic terms of the 19th and 20th Centuries that moved into
scholarly ones and to the region itself.
No Standard bounda
Decline of Arab Nationalism
1960s - ?
o Is it still around today?
Effects of Arab Nationalism
Coup in 1958 overthrows the monarchy
General Abdel Karim Qassim stays out of UAR
He is killed in 1963 by Arab nationalist army officers. . .
Four sources of Sharia Law
o Sunna (known through the hadith http:/www.iiu.edu.my/deed/hadith/)
o Qiyas (reasoning by analogy)
o Ijma (consensus)
Structure of the Empire
Monarchies of the Middle East
How do we define monarchy?
o Legitimation for rule through historic role?
o Succession within a family?
o Rule for life?
o No democratic institutions (or limited democracy)?
o Title that the ruler goes by?
o Protests begin in Sidi Bouzid on December 19 after news spreads of Mohamed
Bouazizis suicide on December 17, 2010.
o January 14, Ben Ali flees to Saudi Arabia.
o Death toll: ~300
o Protests begin on January 25, 2011.
Rise of Arab Nationalism
o Arabs constitute a nation and, for some pan-Arabists, ought to be united into a
o Secular, Socialist, Revolutionary, anti-Imperialist
o An awareness of Arabism must be created so that people will w
o Ali-Akbar Rafsanjani: 1988, 1992, pragmatic reformist/rational technocrat (ran
again in 2005)
o Mohammad Khatami: 1997 (70%), 2001 (80%), liberal reformist
o Mahmoud Ahmadenijad: 2005(61.60%), 2009 (?) conservative, p
Women in Politics
o Twisted image of women
o Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their
modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: And Allah is well acquainted
with all that they do.
The Middle East
The Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA)
Early Muslim Community
o Beginning of the Revelations (610)
o The Hijra (emigration) to Medina (622)
o Constitution of Medina (624/627)
1. Legitimizing the Regime
1. What is legitimacy?
1. Something a government has that increases voluntary compliance
2. Max Weber:
1. Legitimate or voluntary compliance, due to consensus of values or outcome
2. Utilitarian compliance, benefitting the indiv
What role has the state played in the economies of the Middle East?
Socialism and populism: Egypt 1957-1974. Algeria 1962-1989. Syria 1963 to
the present. Iraq 1963-2003. Tunisia 1962-1969. Libya 1969-present.
Ownership of man