Longest chain that contains the aldehyde group is the parent chain
Aldehyde carbon is C-1
When a formyl group (CH=O) is attached to a ring, the ring name is
followed by the suffix -carbaldehyde.
Chemistry 220a - EXAM II - February 24, 2015
1. What is the IUPAC name of the following compound?
2. Which of the following alkenes
In Newman projections we sight down a C - C bond.
The front carbon by a point and the back carbon by a circle.
Each carbon has three other bonds that are placed
symmetrically around it.
The bonds on the back carbon are shown sticking ou
A functional group is a structural unit in a molecule
responsible for its characteristic physical properties as
well as its behavior under a particular set of reaction
Alkenes and alkynes are examples of functional groups.
Orbitals are represented by the boundary surface that
encloses the region where the probability of finding an
electron is highon the order of 90-95%.
Figure 1.1 Probability distribution ( 2) for an electron in
a 1s orbital.
Addition Reactions of Alkenes
The most characteristic reaction of alkenes is addition to
the double bond.
Hydrogenation of Alkenes
Exothermic reaction with heat given off (heat of
The reaction is slow due to a high activation energy and
Lewis base acts as a nucleophile to substitute for the
halogen substituent on carbon.
Functional Group Transformation
by Nucleophilic Substitution
The polar carbon-halogen bond is broken and a carbon
A molecule is chiral if its two mirror-image forms are not
superimposable in three dimensions.
The word chiral is derived from the Greek word cheir,
Chirality most often occurs in molecules that contain a
carbon that is a
Hydrocarbons with a carboncarbon triple bond are alkynes.
Noncyclic alkynes have the molecular formula CnH2n-2.
Acetylene (HCCH) is the simplest alkyne.
Compounds with the triple bond at the end of a carbon
chain (RCCH) are monosubstituted
20.1 Enol Content and Enolization
Halogenation of Ketones
The enol form of the carbonyl contributes to reactivity at the -carbon
Acidity of Carbonyl Compounds
Acidity of Carbonyl
23.1 Classification of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates were considered to be hydrates of carbon because their
molecular formulas correspond to Cn(H2O)m.
A carbohydrate is a polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketone
Carbohydrates have several
25.1 Classification of Amino Acids
The -amino acids are the building blocks of peptides and proteins
The amino acids are linked through an amide bond with the carboxylic
acids of one AA with the -amino group of a second
Peptide or protein (p
18.1 Carboxylic Acid Nomenclature
Systematic Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids
Longest continuous chain that contains the carboxylic acid is the parent.
Replace the e with oic acid
Carboxylic carbon is numbered 1 and substituents located by number
Chapter 5 Reaction Map
Hare Chem 2221
September 30 2015
Chapter 6 Reaction Map
15.1 Sources of Alcohols
15.2 Preparation of Alcohols by Reduction
Metal Hydride Reducing Agents
Metal hydride reducing agents add the equivalent of H2 across the bond of the carbonyl to yield an alcohol
19.1 Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Nucleophilic acyl substitution
Nomenclature of Acid Chlorides
Replace the -ic acid ending of the IUPAC name of the corresponding
carboxylic acid by yl chloride
The suffix -c
The C-OH is the 1 carbon for numbering and is implied
Substituents are cited in alphabetical order and are numbered to give the
lowest numbers possible
However the hydroxy substituent has lower priority than acyl and
16.1 Nomenclature of Ethers, Epoxides, and Sulfides
IUPAC Nomenclature and Ethers
In substitutive naming the smaller alkyl group is an alkoxy substituent
ethyl methyl eth
Conjugation in Alkadienes
and Allylic Systems
Conjugation in Alkadienes and Allylic Systems
A double bond can act like a substituent and give other
groups special properties and reactivity.
For example carbocations, radicals and anions connected