First-Order Logic (FOL)
Propositional to First-Order Logic
All men are mortal
Socrates is a man
Plato is a man
Caesar is a man
Brutus is a man
Socrates is mortal
Plato is mortal
Caesar is mortal
Brutus is mortal
What we need is:
x man(x) mortal(x)
First-O
CS 4-5260
First Order Logic
Lecture 8 (09/20/2016)
Gautam Biswas
Topics
Brief Review of Propositional Logic
First Order Logic
Syntax
Semantics
Quantifiers
Complex Sentences
Assertions and Queries
9/20/2016
CS 6360: Lecture 8
2
What is a knowledge-base
CS 4-5260
Nonlinear Planning + Planning with Graphs
Lecture 12 (10/11/2016)
Gautam Biswas
Topics
Review: Linear Planning: STRIPS
Problems with STRIPS Sussman Anomaly
From Total Order to Least Commitment to Partial Order
Planning
Partial Order Planning
Pla
CS 4-560: Artificial Intelligence
Lecture 18: Probabilistic Reasoning
over Time
Gautam Biswas
Fall 2016
Outline of Lecture
Probabilistic Reasoning over Time (Ch 15 Russell
and Norvig)
11/10/2016
Transition Models for Dynamic systems
Kalman Filters
Dynamic
Agents that reason logically
What is a knowledge-based agent?
! How have the agents evolved?
! What is a Knowledge base (KB)?
!
Reactive agents
" Implemented as production rules
!
Goal-based agents
" State space representations, uninformed and informed
se
Decision Theory
Quiz 9
1. True or False: Maximizing expected utility using an
influence diagram (decision network) takes
polynomial time
2. Suppose distribution p stochastically dominates p.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Ep[U(x)] Ep[U(x)] when U(x) is increasing in x
Ep[U(
(Classical) Planning
What is planning?
State Space Search: (Problem solving
agent) a
Initial
State
n
si
a1
sj
a2
Goal
State
States
Initial State
Goal State
Actions
Every search problem looks like this
Problem: unstructured (what do
states look like? How d
Planning in the Real World
Planning in the Real World
What important features is the planning problem
studied thus far missing?
Time (how long do actions take? When should we schedule
them?)
Resource constraints (difficult to encode in classical planni
Inference in First-Order
Logic
POP QUIZ (Open Book)
1. True or False: In first-order logic (FOL), a
function must always return an object
2. The FOL expression for the enemy of my
enemy is my friend is
d)
x,y Enemy(x,y) MyFriend(y)
x,y MyEnemy(x)Enemy(x,y
Informed Search
Include specific knowledge to
efficiently conduct the search and
find the solution.
Informed Search Methods
Recall uniform cost search: search in order of
path cost
General Strategy: search in order to predicted
total solution cost
BEST-FI
Constraint Satisfaction
Problems
A collection of
variables
A set of constraints
on variable values
Problem: find an
assignment of values
to variables that
does not violate
constraints
State = assignment
of values to variables
Action = assign value
Constra
Uninformed Search
Solving Problems by
Searching
How do you formulate a problem?
Given a problem formulation, how
do you solve it?
Formulating Problems
Goal: what are you trying to accomplish?
Goal test: check if the current state contains the goal
Initial
CS 4-5260: Artificial Intelligence
Lecture 21: Learning Decision Trees + Nave
Bayes Classifiers
Gautam Biswas
Fall 2016
Outline of Lecture
Supervised versus Unsupervised Learning
Learning Decision Trees (Chapter 18 Russell and
Norvig (sections 18.1-18.4)
CS206 Artificial Intelligence
LISP Programming Notes
Gautam Biswas
A quick primer on Lisp environments
Gnu Common Lisp (CLISP), like any other version of Common Lisp is an interactive environment. The > is the CLISP
prompt. It indicates that CLISP is read
What is an Agent?
Humans?
Cars?
Cats?
Computer?
Web bot?
A mobile robot?
Our definition
An agent is anything that can be
viewed as perceiving its environment
through sensors and acting upon that
environment through actuators.
Russell and Norvig 2003.
Age
Home Work 1: (Problem Set).
Due: Thurs., Sept. 4, 2008 at the beginning of class.
General Instructions:
If anything is ambiguous or unclear.
1. Discuss possible interpretations with other students, your TA, and instructor.
2. Make assumptions, state them
10/14/2014
AI Project Assignment
Artificial Intelligence
Fall 2008 Project Details
The first project will be to implement the game Othello with the search capability of your choice,
based upon the search methods discussed in class. This project will be ru
Home Work 2: (Problem Set).
Due: Thurs., Sept. 25, 2008 at the beginning of class.
General Instructions:
If anything is ambiguous or unclear.
1. Discuss possible interpretations with other students, your TA, and instructor.
2. Make assumptions, state them