ITC Tutorial: Design of Experiments and Analysis of Data
by Joel Tellinghuisen Department of Chemistry Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN 37235
The Plan of Attack
n n n n
5-minute statistics: Linear least squares: Nonlinear least squares: Application to
C hemistry 236
Bomb Calorimetry Lab Study Problems - Answers
1. a
2. a
5. e (98.75 kJ/K)
6. a.
qspecific = 16.082 kJ/g
b.
3. c
4. volume
qspecific = 47.618 kJ/g E = 5439.4 kJ/mol
C8H18 + 25/2 O2 8 CO 2 + 9 H 2O(l); ngas = 9/2 mol.
H = E + (PV ) = E + (nRT
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 1
January 28, 2014 Statistics and KaleidaGraph Basics
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1. (2)
State the following two numbers unambiguously
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 2
Lab Day _
February 4, 2014 Experiments 1 and 2
(3) Calibration functions. A Baratron pressure gauge gives a reading of 0.27 V when P =
0, and 8.51 V when P = 761 torr. What is the apparent P when this gauge reads 4.33 V?
A.
P = a +
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 3
Lab Day _
February 26, 2012 Experiments 3 and 4
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A. (13)
Bomb Calorimetry.
1.
(3) A 0.3508 g tablet of gl
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 4
Lab Day _
March 26, 2013 Least Squares, Probability, and KaleidaGraph
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1. (8) Discrete probability distr
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 2
Lab Day _
February 5, 2013 Experiments 1 and 2
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A. (12)
Calibration.
1. (3) A Baratron gauge (capacitance
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 1
January 29, 2013 Statistics and KaleidaGraph Basics
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1. (2) Consider the number 1.17. If this represents
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 2
Lab Day _
February 4, 2014 Experiments 1 and 2
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A. (3) Calibration functions. A Baratron pressure gauge g
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 3
Lab Day _
February 25, 2014 Experiments 3 and 4
A. (8)
Bomb Calorimetry practical.
1.
(3) A 0.893 g tablet of phenol (C6H5OH, M = 94.12) is completely burned in a bomb calorimeter
having CK = 13.22 kJ K1, producting a temperature in
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 3
Lab Day _
February 25, 2014 Experiments 3 and 4
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A . (8)
Bomb Calorimetry practical.
1.
(3) A 0.893 g tab
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 5
Lab Day _
April 17, 2012 Elective Experiments and Review
I.
(30)
Elective Experiments. Do only ONE of the following three problems; pick
one that corresponds to your lab work. (Other choices will not be counted.)
A. Equilibrium and
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 5
Lab Day _
December 1, 2010 Elective Experiments and Review
I.
(35)
Elective Experiments. Do only ONE of the following two problems; pick one
that correspond to your lab work. (Other choices will not be counted.)
A. Thermal Expansivi
C hemistry 236
Freezing Point Depression Study Problems - Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
d
c
a
b
c
e (0.625 M, since H2SO4 has two neutralizable H's)
7.
8.
9.
10.
13.
d
a
d
b
= 0.217 and T = 0.451 K.
14. (a)
(b)
Expected T (simple treatment) = 1.030 K.
= 0.9
Chemistry 236 Inversion of Sucrose Lab Study Problems - Answers 2. a. 0 = [] [sucrose]0 l = 66.4 dm1 mL g1 0.100 g/mL 2.00 dm = 13.28 (13.3). 1/2 [sucrose]0 l cfw_[],gluc + [],fruc = 3.6. More precisely, 100.00 g sucrose 52.63 g glucose + 52.63 g fructos
C hemistry 236
Spectrophotometry Study Problems - Answers
1. To derive Eq. (7), start with the exact expression (2) and set [M] [M]0. Then
solve for x (= [I2M]). Next substitute for x from the Beer-Lambert law, x =
A x/( xl), invert the resulting equation
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 4
Lab Day _
March 25, 2014 Least Squares, Probability, and KaleidaGraph
1 . (8) Consider the probability distribution, P(x) = c (1 x), defined over the range 0 x 1. For this
distribution, calculate: (a) the normalization constant, (b)
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 5
Lab Day _
April 16, 2013 Elective Experiments and Review
I.
(30)
Elective Experiments. Do only ONE of the following three problems; pick
one that corresponds to your lab work. (Other choices will not be counted.)
A. Freezing Point D
Freezing-Point Depression
A. Simple Picture for Strong Electrolytes
1. Colligative Property: depends only on amount of solute, not
its nature. Does depend on solvent.
2. Equation:
T f = k f m B
[mB is solute molality, kf =
1.860 K kg/mol for water; = ?]
The Triple Point
A. Thermodynamics
1. Phase Equilibria: X(l) X(g) and X(s) X(g)
(vaporization and sublimation)
2. Clapeyron Eqn: dP/dT = S/V
Since these are equilibrium processes at fixed T,
S = H/T, where H = Hvap or Hsub.
3. Clausius-Clapeyron: When one
Thermal Expansivity
A. Underpinning Purposes
1. Experience in using a known substance to calibrate a device,
for subsequent application to an unknown substance.
2. Acquaintance with two simple devices the pycnometer
and the dilatometer capable of giving v
Physisorption
A. Theory Chemisorption: The Langmuir Isotherm
Theory for physisorption (the BET isotherm for weak, or
physical adsorption) is beyond the scope of this course.
However, many elements of the theory arise also in the simpler
theory of chemisor
L-V Equilibrium in a Binary System
A. Ideal Solution Theory (Raoults Law)
1. Pi,id = xi,l Pi*(T)
x = mole fraction; l = liq.; * = pure;
i = A or B for binary system.
2. Typically used for mixtures of volatile components.
3. Far less reliable than ideal ga
Bomb Calorimetry
A. Thermodynamics
1. First Law: E = q + w (E = internal energy; q & w are heat
added to and work done on system)
2. PV work: wPV = PdV Thus, if wPV is the only work, w =
0 when V is constant, yielding
3. E = q (= qV), process at constant
Spectrophotometric Study of Equilibrium
A. Reaction
1. M + I2 MI2 (charge-transfer complexation)
2. Equilibrium: K =
[M I 2 ]
x
[M] [I2 ] ([M]0 x)([I 2 ]0 x)
3. Conditions: K 1 M1, so all species present at equilibrium.
(Note that K [M] = [MI2]/[I2], so I
Temperature and Pressure Calibration
A. Pressure
1. Reference: Hg manometer 1 Torr 1 mm Hg
1
760
1
760
1 Torr
atm
101 325 Pa
2. Temperature correction (for T dependence of for Hg)
[Eqs. (6), p. 34 of CP; 2nd form adequate]
3. Open-ended manometer: h(mm)
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 1
January 28, 2014 Statistics and KaleidaGraph Basics
1. (2)
State the following two numbers unambiguously to 4 significant digits:
1.235105
(a) 123456.789
(b) 0.000132
1.32010-4
2. (3) A pressure is measured to be 654.15 Torr and is
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 4
Lab Day _
March 26, 2013 Least Squares, Probability, and KaleidaGraph
1. (8) Discrete probability distributions are like continuous, except that sums over the possible outcomes
replace integrals over the defined range for a continuo
Chemistry 236 - Quiz 4
Lab Day _
March 27, 2012 Experiments 3 and 4
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A. (13)
Bomb Calorimetry.
1.
(4) Combustion of 1.473 g of substance A raises the temperature of 0.931 kg of water by 2.143
K. Therefore, combustion of 1.910 g of A w