Philosophy of Language: Test One Review
ONE: Unique Characteristics of Natural Human Language
1) (Almost) always stimulus-independent: No external nor internal stimuli can allow one
to predict the utterances of another
2) Abstract: A
7 November 16
Test II Review
1. What is Ayers conclusion about the semantical status of ethical utterances? State precisely (dont
just label) the principle he uses to establish that conclusion, and briefly explain how he applies that
Religion keeps humans from growing up. We dont need a big Daddy in the sky. We need to grow up and
become our own parents.
The woman prizes autonomy over meaning. Pojman interprets her as offering two theses:
(1) It is m
Professor Lachs, TA: Norman Whitman
April 9th, 2015
According to Ronald Dworkin, Is Genetic Engineering Ethical?
When you look at the history of our time (as humans on earth), there is a progressive
trend that seems to be constant
February 18, 2015
Epictetus philosophical standpoints come off very strict. The way he writes
is in the form of a book of rules, given why it is called the Handbook of Epictetus. This
way of writing makes wh
John Stuart Mills defense of Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism is a theory of maximizing total benefit and reducing suffering
or negatives. Mill explains utilitarianism as representing the following statement
Characters of Moral Virtues
-Dispositions/state of character, Guide action towards a mean, one is praised for them(they enable
What it means to be voluntary
-Moving principle in the person, matter of choice, done after deliberation
-Thinks in terms of vectors
-Empirically=Like a scientists
-1) Reason does not have direct influence over the will. Action is driven by passion
-Copy principle= everything we experience is either an impression or idea.
UNIT 1 TEST -PRACTICE
1. Give the precise definition of an argument. (Hint: Your answer should have two parts).
2. True or False? The conclusion of an argument is a proposition.
3. Give the precise definition of deductive validity.
4. Give th
LOGIC 102.04 |Spring 2015 | MWF 12:10-1:00 | Furman Hall 325
Luke.Semrau@gmail.com | Office Hours: TBA
This course is designed to make you a better reasoner, regardless of your
personal, professional, or academic aspirations. Material c
I _, pledge on my honor that I have neither given nor received
unauthorized aid on this examination.
* Assuming Existential Import*
Module 1: Determining Immediate Inferences
The Square of Opposition
1. Draw the Traditional Square of Opposition. G
I _, pledge on my honor that I have neither given nor
received unauthorized aid on this examination.
NO PARTIAL CREDIT.
1. Fill in the following table for statement classification:
Truth-values of main operator
Day 1: Course Introduction
Today we will:
Meet each other.
Answer two questions:
1. Whats the courses purpose?
2. How do I succeed in this course?
Meet the syllabus.
Survey the argument landscape.
I have lived so
Formal: Translations with Conjunction
Argument Analysis: Cultural Relativism
1. Brief Review
2. Central concepts
2. Translation with and
3. Rachels: The Challenge of Cultural Relativism
In each of these arguments Socr
1. Test Tomorrow! Goal: 90% average or better!
2. Direct/Indirect tests
3. Dont forget the other assignment too.
2. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
3. Review practice test
4. Complex Translations
5. Review Infor
Truth Values & Logical Form
2. Computing Truth Values
3. Logical Form
A and B are true, C and D are false. Q and R
are unknown. What can we say about:
1. (A C) [(D Q) (~A R)]
2. A v ~A
3. (R ~R)
PRACTICE WITH CONDITIONALS
If introduces the antecedent (sufficient condition)
Only if introduces the consequent (necessary condition)
1. If you Run, you will be on Time.
2. You will be on Time, if you Run.
3. You will be Late, if you dont Run.
4. If you
UNIT ONE TEST: Study Guide
This guide is intended to help you prepare for the upcoming test. It should give
you an idea about the format of the test, as well as the content likely to appear. It
is not exhaustive. Be sure to carefully read the Hausman text
Proofs, Probabilities, Possibilities, and Sets
U N I V E R S I T Y PRESS
LOGICS AND THEORIES
Syntax and Semantics
Logic is to do with arguments.
An argument starts with some statementst
Hausman, Chp 4.1-5
Method of Proof
Consists of an initial set of sentences given as premises, followed by a sequence of sentences (that we will
generate) each of which can be reached by the rules of inference (our valid argument forms and
Logic Test #2
1. What is the column under the major operator for a contingent statement?
2. What is the column under the major operator for the relational classification for inconsistent
3. What is the relationship between v
Hausman Chapter 3.8-10
The Short Truth Table Test for Invalidity
All it takes to show that an argument is invalid is a single counterexamplea single line of a truth table on
which the premises are all true and the conclusion false.
We do not need to go th
Physicalism df.= Everything that is is material/matter. The thesis that there is no stuff in the universe except what
physics says there is.
Jacksons Thought Experiment: Mary is confined to a black-and-white room, is educated through black
Hausman Chapter 3.2-4
Logical Form (this is the first move in our transition from semantics to syntax)
Sentence forms are sentences containing only sentence variables and our truth-functional operators. They are
like formulas in mathematics with p, q, r,
Hausman Chapter 3.5-7
Truth-Tables and Validity: Testing for Validity (or better invalidity)
A truth table presents every possible combination of truth values that the components of an argument may
So, if no line exists on which the premises are tru
Friday Argument #4 Euthyphros Dilemma
Divine Command Theory df. = Gods commanding us to X is a necessary and sufficient condition of our having a
moral obligation to X.
Key Passage: Is what is pious pious because the gods approve it, or do they approve it
Justification of the Truth Table for Conditionals
Recall the promissory note concerning the third and forth lines of the truth table
If we take conditionals with false antecedents to be false, then we