Ch 3: Things to know for Neuronal Membrane at Rest
Simple reflexes (thumb tack) also require the nervous system to collect, distribute, integrate
Conduct neural signals over distance with the neuronal axon (axon potential)
Excitable membrane (in cells tha
The nervous system is a remarkable organ that allows us to feel, move, learn, adapt,
interpret information, make judgments and predictions based on that information, and
live life as we perceive it. The human brain, in
A very large area of the cortex is devoted to processing sensory information;
comparatively, the area of the cortex devoted to movement is quite small. Virtually
everything we do and every thought we have is a
The Nervous System
The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral
nervous system (PNS). The CNS refers to the brain and the spinal cord. The PNS is any
element of the nervous system that resides outside of the brain or
Action Potentials & Synaptic Connections
Action Potential & Neuronal Synaptic Connections
To understand action potentials and synaptic connections, one must first understand the
membrane potential of the neuron cell body. The membrane potent
Limbic System Neurotransmitters
Limbic System Neurotransmitters
Each of the nuclei in the limbic system uses a specific neurotransmitter to communicate
with other parts of the brain. And just like in the extrapyramidal motor sys
Language Evaluation and Aphasia, Alexia & Agraphia
Evaluating language is a key component of the neuropsychological exam (note that in
order to evaluate language function, the patient must be awake and alert).
We have thus far reviewed the sensory system of the brain the ascending, or afferent,
sensory information that comes into the brain and gets processed so that we have a
subjective experience of what is going on within us and around us.
The somatic nervous system innervates?
The autonomic nervous system innervates?
What type of system does the afferent sensory
What kind of system do efferent motor pathways
What are two types of motor responses to
This system attaches emotional significance to
our perceptions and drives our action. The
feelings underlying love, all tourism, morals,
anger, resentment, jealousy, and greed all are all
generated by this system
Describe the four parts of the Papez circu
Descending or efferent part of the brain is the
The motor system is divided into three systems
What system is involved in the execution of
Where is motor behavior initiated
Where do the neurons that started in the cortex
synapse with motor neuron
This nervous system innervate skeletal muscle
under voluntary control
This nervous system innervates organ systems
and muscles that are not under voluntary control
In a somatic nervous system how are the skeletal
What kind of neuron sys
Tonal modulations of speech
How would you document normal speech
Asking patients to identify objects of various
categories such as colors, body parts, clothing is
referred to as
Asking a patient to generate a list of items in a
category such as names of a
1. What is the function of subplate neurons?
a. They differentiate into inhibitory interneurons.
b. They differentiate into oligodendrocytes.
c. They attract the appropriate thalamic axons to the different parts of the developing cortex.
Describing Anatomical Locations
Dorsal (top), anterior (rostral) (front), posterior (back) (caudal), ventral (bottom), medial, lateral (middle
and outside). Dorsal-lateral: towards the top and outside. Make sure to be comfortable with this.
Segment Polarity Genes
engrailed (en) hedgehog (hh)
So we have two genes that are getting turned on, these are our major players. Name the segment
polarity genes: wingless and engrailed.
These two gene products c
Neurons that are activated are all projected to same place. Organized method of
understanding visual world. How do we set these neurons up so that they function?
Specify through cell-cell interaction over time.
Take undifferentiated cells.
Dont need to memorize four important Fgfs that play role in pathway of zig1 and zig3. If you wanted to
ask questions of what those 4 were doing. 2 are embryonic lethal (not after 4 th day in this case, 8th day in
other case). Problem isnt just with CNS, t
Determination and Differentiation
some cells - final determination and differentiation occurs at proper spot.
in different places in nervous system, cells become differentiated as they go.
1. intrinsic factors (cell lineage)
2. extrinsic factors
wont talk about in detail
have to get neurons where they need to go. Today is about migration. One of the
best ways to look at this is to use these same methods that mark cells during cell
division to see where they go.
Critical or sensitive periods in brain development: its easier to make changes to the brains structure or
function by modulating the environment.
Sensitive period: no critical period, no perfect window. Things that we thought were critical periods. If