Chapter 1 Outline
NOTE: we are only covering Section 1.1
I. Importance of Genetics?
II. Universal Genetic System
All living organisms use a similar genetic system
o genetic information in DNA or RNA
o use the same genetic code
o many genetic processes ar
Ch 19 Outline
Recombinant DNA technology is a set of techniques that locate, isolate, alter, and study DNA. Sometimes it is
also referred to as genetic engineering or biotechnology.
I. Basic Molecular Techniques
A. Restriction Enzymes (restriction endonuc
Ch 20 Outline
Genomics: content, organization, function, & evolution of genetic information within whole genomes
I. Structural genomics: organization & sequence of information within genomes
A. Gene Mapping (Fig 20.2)
Organelle DNA exhibits cytoplasmic inheritance, meaning it is only inherited from one parent.
What are the two types of organellar DNA?
Organelle DNA has replicative segregation in mitosis, illustrated in the figure below (Fig 21.4).
Ch 23 Outline
I. Cancer background information
A. Cancer cells:
do not respond to normal cell cycle controls
rob healthy tissues of nutrients
mass of cancer cells = tumor
localized tumor = benign
tumor invades other tissues = malignant
Chapter 24 Outline
1. What is Quantitative Genetics?
2. Discontinuous vs. Continuous traits (Fig 24.1, 24.2)
3. Why are some characteristics continuous?
Polygenic, environmental influence, multifactorial
4. Types of Quantitative Characteristics
Chapter 25 Outline
Population Genetics: study of the genetic makeup of groups of individuals and how that structure
changes over time (evolves)
Mendelian Population: group of interbreeding, sexually reproducing individuals that have a common set of
Biological Evolution: genetic change in a group of individuals
step 1: genetic variation arises through random mutation
step 2: increase and decrease in the frequencies of genetic variants
I. How do we observe genetic variation?
A. Protein Vari
Genetics Final Exam Review
Below is a summary of topics that we have covered in class. It is not all inclusive, but merely a
representation of the main topics from each chapter. I urge you to use your own notes to verify
the accuracy of this paper, howeve
Test 2 Practice Exam
1. Which process of DNA transfer in bacteria requires viruses
d. All of the above
2. DNA from a bacterial strain with genotype his- leu- thr- is transformed with DNA from a
Genetics Final Exam
The final will consist of 80 multiple choice questions. 40 of these will be from Chapters 19-21, 23, 25-26. Please refer to
your lecture outlines, class notes, and assigned problems to prepare for these chapters. The remaining 40 quest
DNA: Chemical Nature of the Gene
Dr. Marcie H. Moehnke
History of DNA Structure
Miescher: (1868) Observed nucleus of WBC and found
material was slightly acidic with high phosphorus
Kossel - discovered bases
Chromosome Structure and Organelle DNA
Dr. Marcie H. Moehnke
twists in opposite direction
Function of supercoiling?
Dr. Marcie H. Moehnke
Ch 24: Quantitative Genetics
Quantitative Genetics: study of
inheritance of continuous
Why are some characteristics
Encoded by genes at many loci
Ch 18 Outline
I. Why are mutations important?
Source of gene variation - important in adaptation
Cause genetic diseases
Useful for probing biological processes
II. Gene mutations
Mutation - heritable change in DNA
somatic mutation vs. germline mutati
Ch 17 Outline
What are some differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation?
presence of chromatin
more positive control
regulation at multiple levels
The following are ways in which eukaryotes regulate their gene expression:
Chapter 2 Outline
1. 2 major groups of living organisms
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Fig 2.1: Know the differences between Pro and Euk
2. What does a virus consist of? (Fig 2.4a)
3. Cell Reproduction in Bacteria (Fig 2.5)
4. Eukaryotic Chromosomes (Fig 2.
Chapter 3 Outline
1. Know terms in Table 3.1, Figure 3.3
2. Concept of Dominance: when two different alleles are present in a genotype, only the trait encoded by one of
themthe dominant alleleis observed in the phenotype.
3. Mendels Principle of Segregati
Chapter 4 Outline
monoecious - one house
o one individual produces both male and female gametes
dioecious - two houses
o separate sexes - one individual produces only male or female gametes
know the difference between sex chromosomes and autosomes
Chapter 5 Outline
1. Types of Dominance (Fig 5.2, 5.3, Table 5.1)
determine by looking at heterzygote
may depend on how phenotype is observed (see Cystic Fibrosis page 102)
2. Penetrance and Expressivity
Polydactyly shows incomplete penetrance and vari
Ch 6 Outline
1. Fig 6.2 and 6.3a describe the various symbols for creating pedigrees
2. Be able to determine possible modes of inheritance (of those listed below) by examining
autosomal dominant/recessive (Fig 6.4, 6.5 )
Y-linked (Fig 6.10)
Ch 7 Outline
Genes at different loci can be:
1. on different chromosomes (Fig 7.4 b)
2. on same chromosome & completely linked (Fig 7.4 a)
genes are very close together on chromosome
do not assort independently
no new combinations
Ch 9 Outline
1. Chromosome Morphology (see figure in Ch 2: Fig 2.8)
2. What is a karyotype?
3. Classes of Chromosome Variation (Fig 9.3) (Also see Table 9.3 for a summary)
4. Chromosome Rearrangements
Ch 10 Outline
I. History of DNA Structure
A. Meischer, Kossel, Levene, Chargaff, Watson/Crick
Briefly, what contribution did each of these make?
B. For the following scientists, know why they conducted the experiment, what experiment did they
Chapter 11 Outline
I. Packaging DNA into the cell
A. Supercoiling (Fig 11.2)
o Positive vs. negative
o What enzyme aids in supercoiling?
o Function of supercoiling?
packing of DNA within cell
helps with unwinding for replication & transcription
Ch 12 Outline
1. Information Pathways in the Cell (Chapter 10, Fig 10.16)
2. Possible Models of DNA Replication (Fig 12.1)
3. Meselson & Stahl Experiment (Fig 12.2, 12.3)
Why did they perform this experiment? How did they do it? What were the results?
Ch 13 Outline
1. RNA (Fig 13.1)
How does it differ from DNA? (Table 13.1)
What are the different types/functions/locations of RNA? (Table 13.2, Fig 13.2)
o You will become more familiar with these RNAs throughout the remainder of the semester
o NOTE: do
Ch 14 Outline
1. What is the concept of colinearity? How did they determine this was not true in eukaryotes? (Fig 14.1,
2. What is an intron? Are these found in bacteria? Eukaryotes? What about exons? (Fig 14.3)
3. mRNA structure (Fig 14.5)
Ch 15 Outline
1. What are some examples of protein functions?
2. Protein structure
How many common amino acids are there?
What is the structure of an amino acid? (15.5)
Amino acids are joined by peptide bonds to form polypeptides. (15.6)
What are prim
Dr. Marcie H. Moehnke
picture of the complete set of chromosomes that
an organism possesses
change in # of
chromosome structure individual chromosomes