Chapter 2, Review Questions
1. What is thought to be the principle source of water on Earth?
2. The chief source of Earths early atmosphere was outgassing. Explain what is meant by
outgassing. Does outgassing still operate today?
3. Explain how living o
HEAT, TEMPERATURE, AND ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Heat is defined as
a. the equivalent of temperature.
b. a measure of the average kinetic molecular activity of a substance.
c. the name given to the energy transferred
Assignment 3: Lecture textbook Exercises
Chapter 1: Review Questions
1. Distinguish between weather and climate
Weather is the state of the atmosphere at some place and time, it is described with quantative
variables such as
1.Using Track A frontal positions shown in Texas as the starting point, pencil in the cyclones
estimated cold and warm frontal positions at 12-hour intervals along its predicted path. Draw
the fronts from the low-pressure center at each location. For simp
1.Looking down on a Northern Hemisphere extratropical cyclone, surface winds blow
[(clockwise and outward)(counterclockwise and inward)] about the center. [ ]clockwise and
[ ]counterclockwise and inward
2.The specific track of an extratropical cyc
1.Solid lines on the 500-mb map join locations where the 500-mb pressure level is at the same
altitude. These lines, called contours of height, are drawn at intervals of 60 m. The coded height
values on the map are in tens of meters. On the map, contour v
1.Examine Figure 1, the neutral (long-term average or normal) conditions in the tropical Pacific
Ocean from about Borneo in the western Pacific Ocean to the west coast of South America
(greatly exaggerated in the vertical scale). The scene depicts the oce
1.If this air rises as unsaturated (dry) air from 1000 mb, determine its temperature at 500 mb by
following the solid, straight green dry adiabatic lapse rate line passing through the starting
point, up to 500 mb. At 500 mb, the temperature of the
1.Figure 1 shows one tall red block and one short blue block side-by-side on their square bases on the flat
horizontal surface of a table (T).
Because both blocks weigh the same (although they have different volumes) and their bases are the same si
1.Compressing the air by squeezing the bottle was accompanied by a(n) [(decrease)(increase)]
in the temperature of air inside the bottle.
2.The expansion of air that occurred when the bottle was allowed to return to its orig
1.During cool or cold weather episodes, fuel must be consumed to make buildings comfortable
living spaces. A useful indicator of fuel consumption for heating purposes is the determination
of heating degree-days. They are calculated by accumulating
1.Continental outlines are superimposed on the satellite images for orientation. A small + is
marked in the center of each image approximately where the horizontally positioned equator
intersects the vertical 75 W longitude line. This marks the location o
1.Isotherms are drawn at regular intervals; on this map, the interval between successive
isotherms is [(5)(10)(20)(30)] Fahrenheit degrees.
2.Your temperature analysis reveals a pattern with coldest temperatures located to the
1.As the cold front passes your location, the temperature where you are would typically [(rise)(remain steady)
[ ]remain steady
2.As the cold front moves toward and passes your location, the air pressure would typically [(r
1.The Figure 1 curves show average daily solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere varies the
least over the period of a year at the [(polar)(midlatitude)(equatorial)] location. At that location,
the daily period of daylight is 12 hours in length throu
Shenaedra Tatum Hopper
Lab 1 A (Correct answers in red)
Investigations Manual figures are available for printing via the Learning Files section of the
RealTime Weather Portal. To view these images, click on the image or the eInvestigations
Manual Images l
Shenaedra Tatum Hopper
Lab 2A (Correct answers in red)
1.Examine the surface weather map presented in Figure 1 of this investigation. The weather map symbols
shown are those typically seen on the Internet, television, and in newspapers. The
1.In this example, the actual winds circulating around the mesocyclone all have the same speed,
as shown by arrows whose lengths are [(the same)(different)].
[ ]the same
2.From one location to another around the mesocyclone, the wind direc
1.You have drawn the temperature profile of the lower portion of the U.S. Standard
Atmosphere. The Standard Atmosphere describes representative or average conditions of the
atmosphere in the vertical. As seen in Figure 1, the temperature profile fr
Shenaedra Tatum Hopper
Lab 1B (Correct Answers in red)
Slowly rotate your hand clockwise while gradually spreading your thumb and fingertips. Go
through about a quarter of your twisting motion. Stop, mark, and label (1 through 5) the
positions of your thu
1.A mass of cold, dry air is [(denser than)(not as dense as)] a mass of warm, humid air.
Consequently, warmer (lighter) air is often forced to rise above the sloping frontal surface
overlying colder (denser) air.
[ ]denser than
[ ]not as dense as
1.What two processes explain the color of an object?
3.Near sunset clouds may be red or pink. Explain why.
5.A halo around the Moon may be a precursor of stormy weather. Explain why.
7.Provide two examples of atmospheric optical phenomena that i
1.Why is climate considered the state of a system?
3.What is the purpose of peer review?
5.What is the general consensus in the scientific community with regards to the current
climate change trend?
7.What is a Milankovitch cycle?
1. Briefly describe the characteristics of the mature stage of the life cycle of a thunderstorm
3.What causes the anvil top of a cumulonimbus cloud?
5.Describe how and why thunderstorm frequency varies with Earths surface characteristics.
1.What role might selective memory play in our personal assessment of the skill of weather
3.List the main steps involved in the preparation of a weather forecast.
5.Why must weather observations be taken at the same time everywhere?
1.In general terms, compare and contrast the weather in the tropics with the weather at
3.Describe the typical weather in the eye of a hurricane.
5.Why does a hurricane weaken when the system tracks from ocean to land?
2.Identify the various processes that could be involved in the modification of air masses.
4.The cloud and precipitation pattern associated with a cold front is usually narrower than the
cloud and precipitation pattern associated with a warm fro
2.How are the trade winds and westerlies linked to the semi-permanent subtropical
4.How do the Aleutian and Icelandic lows change between winter and summer?
6.How are the subtropical gyres of the ocean basins associated with the pre
2.What causes horizontal air pressure gradients? How do air parcels respond to a horizontal air
4.Why does the Coriolis Effect reverse direction between the Northern and Southern
6.How does the roughness of Earths