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1406: Study Guide for Final Exam General Biology I
1. List the classification hierarchy from the largest category to the smallest, and visa-versa.
1. Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom, Domain
2. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, F
Metric units of length measurement most commonly used in biology include the meter
(m), centimeter (cm), millimeter (mm), micrometer (m), and nanometer (nm). See Table
How many cm are in a meter? _100cm_ How many mm are in a centi
TOPIC 10: MENDELIAN GENETICS
OBJECTIVES: After completing this exercise you will be able to:
1. Define true-breeding, hybrid, monohybrid cross, diploid, haploid,
genotype, phenotype, dominant, recessive, complete dominance, homozygous,
Chapter 2 notes
Matter - Composed of chemical elements
Element - Cannot be broken down to other elements by chemical means
CHOPS - makes up 98% of the body
Compound - 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio
Body requires salt
Sodium + Chlorine = Salt
For Proteins :
3.i. Draw the basic structure of an amino acids
3.ii. Describe the four levels of protein structure
Describe functions proteins perform
in a cell.
3. Protein: A biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more poly-peptides
For each of the four classes of organic compounds identify the following.
1.i. Contrast monosaccharide, disaccharide, and
1.ii. List examples of each group
Describe the function(s) of sugars
Carbohydrates: Include both
Identify five different carbon functional groups.
Hydroxyl group- Hydrogen atom is bonded to a oxygen atom/ Alcohols/ Is polar
as a result of the electrons spending more time near the electronegative oxygen
atom. Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecul
List and describe the order and events of the three stages of the cell cycle.
Interphase- period between cell divisions, during which the cell acquires
nutrients from the environment, grows, and replicates its chromosomes.
2. Mitotic Phase- second phase o
Describe the cellular response to the following osmotic solutions:
Isotonic- Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, causes no net movement
of water into or out of the cell.
Hypertonic- Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell,
Given a sequence of DNA predict the product of replication based on Watson and Crick
base pairing rules.
Outline the steps of the Central Dogma
Describe a nucleotide of RNA.
List and describe the role of three types of RNA.
Given a sequence
List and describe three general forms of natural selection.
Stabilizing Selection- The extremes are selected against.
Example: height; mostly beings tend to the average height- not too many really short ones
or really tall ones.
Directional selection- One
Describe and identify the structure and identify the function of the following cellular
Nucleus- contains most of the cells genes
Nucleolus- non membranous structure involved in the production of ribosomes; a
nucleus has one or more nuclei.
Identify Gregor Mendel and his contribution to Biological Theory.
developed two theories. Law of Segregation and Law of independent
Law of Segregation- Mendels first law, stating that the two alleles in a
pair segregate (separate from eac
For Nucleic Acids
4.i. Identify the three parts of a nucleotide
4.ii. List and describe the function of four types of
Four Protein Level Structures:
1.The primary structure of a protein is its unique sequence of amino acids.