Bow on Unit 1
Historical conceptions and misconceptions
2. TREES (Phylogenies)
Diversity and diversification
How can we trust the tree? Phylogeny problems
Fossils and Paleobiology
Earth is 4.6 Billion years old
Hot inside, cool outside.
Heated by sun
Dense in middle, less dense on outside.
The movement of dense to the inside causes frictional heating.
Global Diversity Through Time: Pattern
5 mass extinctions
There seem to be equilibrium levels of species or genera on Earth at any given time,
changes between eras.
The second graph is the
History of Evolutionary Thought
What was Biology like before Evolution? How did people make sense of the
What is Evolution? What is our current understanding?
Darwin, so what?
Evolution of Sex
There is a twofold cost to sex, mechanically.
The benefits of sex: at the group level, at the individual level.
Ecological and genetic theories
If you are an asexual organism: only one ne
Classification and Phylogeny 2
1. Tree thinking: identify clades, nodes, etc. Tree anatomy
2. Tree building: skill of building tree, to help with thinking about trees
3. Tree using: to combine evolutio
Diversification The Influence of Ecology
What governs species diversity?
Understand the difference between equilibrium/non-
equilibrium explanations of
Appreciate the rol
Appreciate that selection and drift, which are ubiquitous, eliminate variation
from the population
Yet there is variation.
How can there be both selection and variance?
What forces can maintain variation
History of Life
What is life?
The origin of Life
From inorganic to organic chemistry
Urey experiment: plausibili
Life History, Game Theory, Optimality
Optimality means that selection is maximizing for something.
Selection might not lead to perfection (might not maximize what you think it is)
An embryo, has whole life ahead of i
Tree Uses; Geology and Fossils
An evolutionary biologists geology toolkit
Understand the nature of the rock record
Understand the nature of the fossil record
Appreciate, not dismiss, the fossil record.
Given a tr
How do we measure the variation in a population?
Mutation make svariation, but then where does it go? Where mathematically is it
stored in populations?
Get comfortable with p and q
Understand the assum
Variation: 2 Genetic Loci
How can we describe (mathematically) where genetic variation sits in
populations when we wish to speak about 2 genetic loci at once?
2 locus extension of alleles
Tree Troubles, Tree Uses
Be aware of problems with the methods but beware of problems with the data.
Phylogenies provide the pattern of relationship between organisms
Phylogenies provide more patterns than just the
Taxonomy, Classification, and Trees
Understand different approaches to classification: phentics versus
Recognize the difference between classification and phylogeny
Appreciate that Mutations are the ultimate source of the variety we see in nature
Chance proposes, selection (drift) disposes
Know that the great variety of mutations that are pos
Mendelian genetics + Darwinian natural selection = Modern Synthesis
With some algebra, we show that Darwin had it right!
Visualize natural selection and adaptation as mathematical
Quantitative Genetics & Breeders Equation
Understand what a quantitative trait is and what contributes to its variance
Understand the concept of heritability
Appreciate that we can formulate an understanding of evolutionary
There is an estimated heterozygosity of the population that can be taken from a
If an allele originates in a bottle neck point, then the population will be
genetically less variable as