An Introduction to Immunobiology and innate immunity
Basic concepts in immunology
The immune system is a surveillance system that differentiates between self and
self: pathogens, etc.
Dominant expression of MHC-
I and II
In some cases 4 MHC II can be inherited from each parent
They are codiminantly inherited.
6 MHC I molecules: HLA-
A, B and C
There are 3 from mother, three from father.
Cellular Locations of TLRs
They recognize the conserved structural motifs PAMPs and MAMPs
Located on PM
Incorporated into the phagosome
These are not simply cell surface receptors that are int
Many Barriers prevent pathogens from crossing epithelia and infecting tissues.
Integrity of the skin and the mucosae are the first barriers to infection. Skin is the
second largest immunological organ, only f
Need to know that there are 3 pathways
What they do (opsonins, B cell and T cell development)
Microcidal component, C3b, C3a, C5a.
Dendritic cells are the only cells that can activate a
Results in up-
regulation and release of:
Components from live or liberated from dead microorganisms trigger
signaling receptors, too.
Infection triggers an immune response.
The initial cells that contact pathogen are resident macrophages and dendritic cells.
Dendritic cell is king of the antigen presenting cells, only one that can activate
PRINCIPLES OF INNATE AND ADAPTIVE
All of the cellular elements originate from a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells in
the bone marrow.
Long bones stop producing these first, moves to the flat bones like
Kinetics for Viral responses
Under the influence of IF-
1 and pro-
inflammatory cytokines, the NK is activated.
It looks for the cells that are virus-
infected, where the virus infection has
prevented the expression o
The production of IGM is T cell independent, an advantage. Can come on board
The downside of that is that there is no memory generated from IGM, since
memory needs T cells to drive the production of mem